Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Print ISSN: 1823-3430
Online ISSN: 2180-4214
Frequency: Annually
Current Issue: Volume 15, 2019
Abstracting/Indexing: MyJurnal, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Genamics JournalSeek, WorldCat

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.

Aims and Scope

The Journal of Engineering Science presents a broad interdisciplinary knowledge hub on novel international practices and the most recent research findings of practical importance in all aspects of engineering science that could be of benefit to any community worldwide. This international journal aims to be a catalyst towards the eventual success of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD) programme. A hallmark of this journal papers is that they are interdisciplinary in nature, a distinction of findings involving collaboration between traditional engineering disciplines and other scientific fields of specialization. Transdiscipline scope of the Journal will focus on all aspects of engineering disciplines; which could include design, development of engineering techniques, engineering technology, government and legislative policies, engineering management, mathematical modelling of engineering processes, cost optimization, economic aspects of industry, impact of engineering practices on society, biotechnology, nanotechnology, medical image analysis, fuel cells, fibre optics, robotics, offshore foundations, optoelectronics, superconductivity, hypersonics, turbomachinery, coastal management, structural integrity, physiological modelling, ophthalmic technology, geophysics and environmental management via treatment and control of hazardous wastes among others. The objective of this Journal is to enhance communication and understanding across all aspects of global engineering science fraternity via the publications of peer-reviewed and original papers on engineering advancement and solutions to problems worldwide.

The Journal of Engineering Science herewith announces its decision to retract article Controllability of Hybrid Model Reference Fuzzy Logic Controller for Load Disturbances in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Temperature System which was scheduled for publication in Volume 10 (2014). The decision is made upon discovery that an article of similar contents have been published in another journal.

All manuscripts submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Its publication must be approved by all Authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the publisher, Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Publication Ethics

Journal of Engineering Science adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:

Current Issue

Volume 15, 2019

Title: Halloysite Nanotubes Filled Natural Rubber Composites: Functionality, Crystallinity and Thermal Studies
Author: Nabil Hayeemasae, Kamaruddin Waesateh, Abdulhakim Masa and Hanafi Ismail
Source: Journal of Engineering Science 15: 1–10, 2019
- Abstract  

In this article, low loading of Halloysite Nanotube (HNT) was used as filler for natural rubber (NR) composites where it was used at 0–10 phr. The change of functionalities and crystalline structure were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The performance of the composites was further monitored through the thermogravimetric analysis. The band of Al–OH vibration shifted from 910 to 914 cm–1 after the addition of 2.5–10 phr of HNT. Further increase in the HNT loading has caused to increase in the peak intensities of Si–O and Al–OH vibrations. This limited intercalation of HNT throughout NR and other ingredients was evidently shown in XRD results. Moreover, the addition of HNT also results in shifting the decomposition temperature and char residue irrespective of the loadings of HNT, the tubular-shape and unique structure of HNT is clearly responsible to the thermal stability observed.

Keywords: halloysite nanotubes, natural rubber, Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray diffraction

Title: Transformation of Magnetite (Fe3O4) and Maghemite (γ–Fe2O3) to α–Fe2O3 from Magnetic Phase of Glagah Iron Sand
Author: Sayekti Wahyuningsih, Ari Handono Ramelan and Yosep Rio Kristiawan
Source: Journal of Engineering Science 15: 11–21, 2019
- Abstract  

The study of magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) transformation to α-Fe2O3 from magnetic phase of Glagah iron sand has been done. Glagah sand was magnetised to separate magnetic and non-magnetic sand. Then, it was prepared by ball milling for 5 h (20:1 w/w) to reduce the particle size. Magnetic iron sand was roasted at 1,000°C with the addition of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) (sand mass ratio: Na2CO3 1:2 w/w) for 2 h to reduce the silicon dioxide (SiO2) content. Characterisation of X-ray fluorescence after magnetic separation, ball milling and roasting showed an increasing percentage of Fe2O3 from 31.10% to 70.13%. Furthermore, magnetic iron sand was refluxed using hydrochloric acid (HCl) with concentrations of 3, 6, 9 and 12 M for 2 h. Then, the aqueous phase was precipitated with the addition of 3 M ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH). The obtainable sediments showed Fe2O3 optimal percentage at concentration of 12 M by 67.96%. Calcination of Fe2O3 at 400°C, 600°C and 800°C showed a phase transformation of Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 to α-Fe2O3 which reached an optimum was 92.23% at a temperature calcination of 800°C was showed an optimum percentage (92.23%) of phase transformation of Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 to α-Fe2O3 at a temperature of 800°C. While the thermogravimetry/different thermal analysis showed the formation of a stable α-Fe2O3 after a temperature at 707.9°C is indicated by no longer mass loss.

Keywords: magnetite, maghemite, iron sand, Glagah, magnetic phase

Title: Synthesis of Cardanol-Based Novolac Resin from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid
Author: Putri Rahmawati, Ari Handono Ramelan, Soerya Dewi Marliyana, Neng Sri Suharty and Sayekti Wahyuningsih
Source: Journal of Engineering Science 15: 23–33, 2019
- Abstract  

Phenolic resin is a kind of polymer product obtained through several types of polymerisation process of natural or synthetic materials. One of natural compounds that can be applied for polymer manufacture is cardanol. By means of this research, cardanol has been successfully isolated from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) through liquid-liquid extraction methods while cardanol-based novolac resin was synthesised from obtained isolate and formaldehyde was synthesised by addition of citric acid as catalyst. Both isolated cardanol and cardanol-formaldehyde (CF)-based novolac resin were being confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTA) analyser were undertaken to analyse thermal stability of the resin. Based on FTIR spectras and 1H NMR spectroscopy, CF-based novolac resin was successfully synthesised through polycondensation reaction. Thermal stability of isolated CF resin showed high degradation temperature of 282°C.

Keywords: cardanol, CNSL, novolac, resin

Title: Design and Analysis of Rotating Stator in Electrical Machine System
Author: Jotham Jeremy Lourdes and Rosmiwati Mohd-Mokhtar
Source: Journal of Engineering Science 15: 35–48, 2019
- Abstract  

This paper presents a study on effect of rotating stator in electrical machine system. The designed generator is different from the conventional one, in which in conventional system, only rotor is rotating and the stator is fixed. In this study, both rotor and stator are allowed to rotate. The objective of this study is to investigate and analyse the potential improvement to the electrical power generation if the stator part is also allowed to rotate. The direct current (DC) machine is redesigned in such a way that both stator and rotor can be rotated. In this paper, a model of DC generator is observed for the following conditions; when only stator rotates, when only rotor rotates, when both rotor and stator rotate in opposite direction and when both rotor and stator rotate in same. From result, it is observed that the output voltage that is produced when both rotor and stator are rotating is higher than to normal rotor only rotated. This indicates the possibility of generating more electrical power using this configuration.

Keywords: DC generator, rotating stator, Faraday's law, rotor

Title: Effects of Particle Sizes on the Properties of Binderless Boards Made from Rattan Furniture Waste
Author: Zuraida Ahmad, Maisarah Tajuddin, Md Abd Maleque and Zahurin Halim
Source: Journal of Engineering Science 15: 49–61, 2019
- Abstract  

Rattan furniture had produced high amount of wastes with different particle sizes that could be used in manufacturing binderless boards (BB), which were the boards that reduced or excluded the use of synthetic resins in board production. Therefore this research is executed to study the effect of particle sizes of rattan furniture waste (RFW) on the properties of BB produced via hot-pressing technique. The pressing parameters is fixed at the temperature of 180°C, pressing pressure of 1.5 MPa and holding time of 5 min using different particle sizes of 50, 100, 250 and 500 μm and denoted as BB50, BB100, BB250 and BB500 respectively. All the BB samples underwent bending, internal bonding, thickness swelling, water absorption and morphological testing. The BB50 had the best properties with modulus of rupture (MOR) of 24.3 MPa, internal bonding (IB) of 0.35 MPa, thickness swelling (TS) of 20.2% and water absorption (WA) of 48.2%. scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology shows the compact and tight bonding among fibres for BB50. In contradict, the BB500 had the lowest values due to weak bonding and occurrence of voids inside the BB. Physical consolidation among the fibres inside BB and degradation of chemical components inside RFW were the anticipated self-bonding mechanism that occurred during the production of BB via this hot-pressing process.

Keywords: binderless, rattan, particle sizes, self-bonded, cross-linking, physical consolidation, chemical degradation, morphology

Title: Effect of Blend Ratio on the Properties of Polystyrene/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene/Carbon Black (PS/ABS/CB) Conductive Materials
Author: Ming Yeng Chan, Pei Leng Teh and Cheow Keat Yeoh
Source: Journal of Engineering Science 15: 63–75, 2019
- Abstract  

This research focused the effect of different polystyrene/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PS/ABS) blend ratio (0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 80:20 and 100:0) on the properties of polystyrene/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/carbon black (PS/ABS/CB) conductive polymer composites (CPCs). Materials were produced through melt blending by using Brabender Plastograph internal mixer. The effect of PS/ABS blend ratio at fixed 15 wt % of CB on the mechanical, electrical, thermal and morphology properties were investigated. The results showed that the flexural strength and modulus reduced as increasing of PS content in PS/ABS/CB CPCs. The storage modulus and transition temperature (Tg) of PS/ABS/CB CPCs decreased with increasing of PS content. The PS/ ABS/CB CPCs at blend ratio of 50:50 showed the highest thermal stability compared to 20:80 and 80:20 at same filler loading.

Keywords: polystyrene, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, carbon black, conductive polymer composites


Creative Commons License
All articles published in Journal of Engineering Science are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2011 by Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia. All rights reserved.