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[ Volume 22, No. 1, 2015 ]



The Asian Journal of Humanities

Published by
Universiti Sains Malaysia Press

Print ISSN: 1394-9330
Online ISSN: 2180-4257
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 22, No. 1, 2015
Abstracting/Indexing: SCOPUS, Malaysian Abstracting and Indexing System (MyAIS), Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)

* The term Kemanusiaan is a Malay word meaning "Humanities". It is derived from the form manu, a Sanskrit term which means "man" or "mankind".


KEMANUSIAAN The Asian Journal of Humanities, formerly known as Jurnal Ilmu Kemanusiaan (Journal of Humanities) publishes theoretical and empirical writings on aspects of the humanities in Asia as well as those that are universally relevant and provide new knowledge to the broad area of the Humanities.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.


Publication Ethics

KEMANUSIAAN The Asian Journal of Humanities adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:

Current Issue
Volume 22, No. 1, 2015

Title: Satu Analisis Ketepatan Terjemahan Chengyu dalam Novel Jia (Keluarga) ke dalam Bahasa Melayu
(An Analysis of the Accuracy of Chengyu Translation in the Novel Jia [Family] into Malay)
Author: Boh Phaik Ean and Goh Sang Seong
Source: Kemanusiaan The Asian Journal of Humanities 22(1): 1-26, 2015
- Abstract  

Makalah ini membincangkan penterjemahan makna chengyu ke dalam bahasa Melayu. Chengyu ialah subkategori peribahasa Cina yang bentuk dan maknanya bersifat ringkas, tetap dan padat. Data kajian melibatkan 208 data yang dikutip secara manual daripada novel Jia (Keluarga). Bagi tujuan pengumpulan dan penganalisisan data, kajian ini memanfaatkan definisi penterjemahan dan kaedah perbandingan teks yang diutarakan oleh Larson serta definisi dan pengkategorian chengyu yang dikemukakan oleh Wu Zhan Kun dan Wang Qin. Hasil pencerakinan data menunjukkan bahawa wujudnya keadaan persamaan makna, pengurangan makna, penambahan makna, pengosongan makna dan perbezaan makna. Malahan, lebih daripada satu keadaan tersebut boleh hadir secara serentak. Terjemahan tepat tercapai kerana wujudnya persamaan atau hampir sama antara konsep pemikiran dalam bahasa sumber dengan bahasa sasaran. Perihal makna chengyu tertinggal, ditokok tambah, dikosongkan ataupun berbeza daripada makna asal didapati berpunca daripada kekangan linguistik dan ekstralinguistik serta kecuaian manusia. Penguasaan dua proses utama yang menerajui aktiviti penterjemahan, iaitu pemerolehan dan penjelmaan semula makna dalam teks sumber mestilah berada pada tahap yang tinggi.

Kata kunci dan frasa: chengyu, pemindahan makna, makna hakiki, makna leksikal, penterjemahan bahasa Cina-bahasa Melayu

This paper discusses the translation of chengyu meanings into Malay. Chengyu is a subcategory of Chinese proverbs with a form and meaning that is simple, fixed and compact. Research data includes 208 data collected manually from the novel Jia (Family). For the purpose of data collection and analysis, this study utilises the definition of translation and the text comparison method proposed by Larson as well as the definition and categorisation of chengyu proposed by Wu Zhan Kun and Wang Qin. The results of the data analysis show that there are occurrences of equivalent meaning, reduced meaning, added meaning, zero meaning and different meaning. In fact, more than one condition may be present simultaneously. Accurate translation is achieved because there are similarities or near-similarities in thinking concepts between the source language and the target language. Chengyu with missing meaning, exaggerated meaning, zero meaning or meaning different from the original occurs due to linguistic and extralinguistic constraints as well as human negligence. There must be a strong grasp of the two main processes leading the translation activities, the derivation and conveyance of meaning from the source text.

Keywords and phrases: chengyu, meaning transfer, true meaning, lexical meaning, Chinese-Malay translation

Title: Kunlun and Kunlun Slaves as Buddhists in the Eyes of the Tang Chinese
Author: Kang Heejung
Source: Kemanusiaan The Asian Journal of Humanities 22(1): 27-52, 2015
- Abstract  

As the entries on Kunluns and Kunlunnus increased in the historical records of Tang, art pieces depicting them also increased. The people of Tang wrote mystical tales about the Kunlunnu, who possessed supernatural powers. Kunlun was not a word that indicated a specific country in Southeast Asia. Kunluns are represented in the historical records as having "wavy hair and dark skin". Even if Hinduism was more prevalent than Buddhism in Southeast Asia from the third century to the seventh century, Kunluns were often presented as followers of the Buddhist faith in Chinese art, which likely resulted from the fact that the Southeast Asians brought in Buddhist goods as items with which to pay tribute to China. This is why the Chinese presumed that the Southeast Asians were fervent Buddhists. Within the tributary system, the Kunlunnus from a certain region in Southeast Asia were strangers to the Chinese, but they became regarded as Buddhists with magical powers, which departed from their real existence.

Keywords and phrases: Kunlun, Kunlunnu, Tang China, Southeast Asia, Buddhism

Title: The Phenomenal Concept Strategy and a Master Argument
Author: Napoleon M. Mabaquiao, Jr.
Source: Kemanusiaan The Asian Journal of Humanities 22(1): 53-74, 2015
- Abstract  

The phenomenal concept strategy (PCS) is widely regarded as the most promising physicalist defence against the so-called epistemic arguments—the anti-physicalist arguments that establish an ontological gap between physical and phenomenal facts on the basis of the occurrence of epistemic gaps in our descriptions of these facts. The PCS tries to undercut the force of the epistemic arguments by attributing the occurrence of the epistemic gaps to the special character of phenomenal concepts—the concepts by means of which we think about our phenomenal experiences. In this essay, the author examines David Chalmers' master argument against the PCS and the objections raised against this argument by Peter Carruthers, Bénédicte Veillet and Katalin Balog in defending the PCS. While the author finds these objections to be successful defences of the PCS, the author shares Balog's belief that in this regard, the debate between the physicalists and anti-physicalists is a stalemate.

Keywords and phrases: phenomenal concepts, epistemic arguments, master argument, physicalism, epistemic gaps, phenomenal concept strategy

Title: The Unwelcome Consuls: The Contested Appointment of Chinese Consuls in Colonial Malaya
Author: Low Choo Chin and Sah-Hadiyatan Ismail
Source: Kemanusiaan The Asian Journal of Humanities 22(1): 75-99, 2015
- Abstract  

The prospect of the appointment of Chinese Consuls for colonial Malaya following Britain's recognition of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in January 1950 illustrated the tension between Britain's colonial and international priorities in Southeast and East Asia. While the Foreign Office and its regional representatives were eager not to antagonise China by refusing to admit consuls to Malaya, the colonial authorities were alarmed by the fact that Chinese Consuls in Malaya would give succour to Chinese insurgents in Malaya. Confronted with the communist insurgency, British colonial administrators sought to delay and prevent the arrival of Chinese Consuls. This article examines the debates among the British policy makers within the imperial framework for British policies in the formative decade of the Cold War. It argues that the question of Chinese consular representation was contentious because of the colonial government's inability to secure the loyalty of the Chinese communities in the midst of the communist insurgency.

Keywords and phrases: Chinese Consuls, Sino-British relations, Malayan Emergency, the People's Republic of China, Cold War

Title: God as the Only Creator: Some Implications for Conceptualising Islamic Architecture
Author: Omer Spahic
Source: Kemanusiaan The Asian Journal of Humanities 22(1): 101-126, 2015
- Abstract  

This paper discusses the notion of God as the only Creator, exploring its main implications for conceptualising the identity and purpose of Islamic architecture. The paper concludes that the concept of God as the Creator represents the core of the Islamic doctrine of tawhid (God's Oneness and Uniqueness) which, in turn, presents Islamic architecture with its identity impressing it by its own mould. Buildings in Islam are conceived and erected only to serve God and the noble purpose of creation instituted by the Creator. Ascribing the terms "creation" and "creators" to human beings should always be conditional and metaphorical, not authentic or unqualified. Just as the Creator cannot become creation, similarly a creation cannot become a creator. Only against this backdrop, the role and objective of man on earth, and all his civilisational undertakings, including architecture, are to be viewed and assessed. The implications of this central Islamic tenet for Islamic architecture are studied under the sub-topics of the identity of Islamic architecture and the role of Islamic decorative arts.

Keywords and phrases: God, the Creator, man, Islamic architecture, decoration