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[ Volume 17, 2010 ]



Southeast Asian Culture and Heritage in a Globalising World
ISMAIL, Rahil, SHAW, Brian and OOI, Giok Ling

Reviewed by
Cheah Boon Kheng


The Asian Journal of Humanities

Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Past Issue - Volume 17, 2010


The contributions in this volume foreground issues in the areas of philosophy, civilisation, history and discourse. They are concerned with universal issues as well as local matters.  The first article looks at the universal issue of human emotion, particularly emotion and woman.  The author, in her discussion, follows Edith Stein who argues that the biological and maternal nature of woman affects her whole being.  Stein's philosophy underlines two characteristics of woman, attraction to the personal and attraction to wholeness, which make her sensitive towards her own being and others. The author sees Stein's philosophy as ''a remarkably deep source of enlightenment'' which challenges recurrent assertions of emotion as an unreasonable phenomenon and of woman as the 'weaker sex'.

The second article is an examination of the role of the concept of sustainable development in developing a sustainable society.  It argues for religious awareness and moral guidance in instilling the values of protecting and caring for the environment, and natural resources that will help generate a civilized society, one that understands the interdependence between human and the environment for sustainability.

The third and fourth papers are both historical in nature as they consider local issues based on historical documents. The former is concerned with issues surrounding the Malay Reservation Enactment that was created in Malaya in the early 1900s to safeguard Malay-owned land. The latter is a historical account of the Suara Rakyat newspaper that was established in 1945 and the role it played in raising political awareness among the Malay community in the Malay Peninsula.

The final contribution discusses the discourse style of Al-Abrar, a novel by a local writer.  It focuses on the writer's use of different forms of repetition in creating meaning and an impression on readers.

  • Emotion: Woman's Strength or Frailty?
    Maybelle Marie O. Padua

    Abstract: Edith Stein's viewpoint on woman presents a fuller sense of the metaphysical notion of the being of woman. Stein's position is that woman′s nature as biological mother affects her whole being. Woman has two essential characteristics: attraction to the personal and attraction to wholeness. It is woman's emotions that account for these distinctly feminine traits. Woman is distinguished by her empathetic perception of persons, an intuitive grasp of a person's being and value as "person". Stein describes empathy as a clear awareness of another person, not simply of the content of his/her experience, but of his/her experience of that content. In empathy, one takes the place of the other without becoming strictly identical to him/her. One does not simply understand the experiences of the other, but takes them on as one's own. Stein reinterprets traditional readings of woman, challenging claims of the woman as the "weaker sex" and of emotions as inferior to reason.

Keywords and phrases: Edith Stein, emotions, woman, empathy, intuition, person


  • The Concept of Sustainable Development in Human Civilisation: An Introspective View
    Ratna Roshida Ab Razak and Zainal Abidin Sanusi

    Abstract: This article argues that, even though the issue of development has a profound and far-reaching impact on human lives, sustainable development, which considers human lives for today and tomorrow has a positive impact on human development. The principal goal of this paper is to critically examine the potential role of sustainable development, a concept rooted in the eighteenth-century idea of "natural balance" or natural equilibrium in developing a human civilisation. Not unexpectedly, such a lofty, global objective has raised questions in the minds of experts used to dealing with developmental issues in a usual, compartmentalised manner. While there has been some reflection as to what constitutes sustainable development, the same cannot be said for a sustainable society. Yet sustainability is critical for all nations today and the gradual implementation of measures for sustainable development strongly reinforces the quest for a sustainable society and for the development of human civilisation.

Keywords and phrases: sustainable development, human civilisation, environment, nature


  • Enakmen Tanah Rizab Melayu Kelantan dan Pemilikan Tanah, 193040
    (Kelantan Malay Reserve Land Enactment and Land Rights, 193040)
    Nik Haslinda Nik Hussain

    Abstrak: Analisis dalam makalah ini tertumpu kepada persoalan tentang Tanah Simpanan Melayu di Kelantan (TSM) dari perspektif sejarah dengan meneliti pelaksanaan Enakmen Tanah Rizab Melayu Kelantan dari tahun 1930 hingga 1940. Kajian sejarah menunjukkan bahawa 9 daripada 10 bidang tanah milik orang Melayu telah hilang atau dijual kepada bukan Melayu. Pengambilalihan hak milik tanah kepada orang bukan Melayu berlaku sama ada melalui penjualan atau penggadaian tanah merupakan sesuatu yang lazim berlaku di negeri-negeri Melayu. Pentadbir Inggeris telah bertindak dengan memperkenalkan TSM untuk menyekat fenomena ini. TSM mempunyai dua objektif; untuk menyekat tanah orang Melayu berpindah ke tangan bukan Melayu dan untuk menyekat sebarang perundingan terhadap Tanah Rizab Melayu sebagai barang perniagaan dan juga untuk menyelamatkan orang Melayu daripada dibebani hutang melalui urus niaga tanah. Berdasarkan objektif tersebut, dasar TSM adalah untuk memastikan tanah orang Melayu hanya boleh dipindahkan kepada orang Melayu sahaja. Dasar TSM secara rasminya diadakan pada tahun 1913 di negeri Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan dan Pahang pada 1 Januari 1914. Selepas itu, dikuatkuasakan Enakmen Rizab Tanah Melayu di Kelantan (1930), Perlis (1930), Kedah (1931), Johor (1935) dan Terengganu (1941).

    Kata kunci dan frasa: Tanah Simpanan Melayu, Enakmen Tanah Rizab Melayu, hak milik Melayu, pemindahan hak milik tanah

    Abstract: This paper discusses the issue of Malay Reserve Land (MRL) in Kelantan from a historical perspective based on an analysis of the implementation of the Malay Reservation Enactment in Kelantan from 1930 until 1940. Land ownership transfer to non-Malays, whether through mortgage or sale, was a common phenomenon in the Malay States and historical research shows that 9 out of 10 pieces of Malay-owned lands were lost or sold to non-Malays. The rampant transfer of Malay-owned lands to non-Malays was the reason for the introduction of the Malay Reservation Enactment by the English colonial administrators at the time. The enactment has two objectives; to stop land belonging to the Malays from falling into the hands of non-Malays and to prevent Malay reserve land from being used as a business transaction. The enactment ensures that Malay land can be handed over to the Malays only. The MRL enactment was officially created in the states of Selangor, Perak and Negeri Sembilan in 1913, and in Pahang as of 1 January 1914. Subsequently, the MRL was enforced in the states of Kelantan (1930), Perlis (1930), Kedah (1931), Johor (1935) and Terengganu (1941).

Keywords and phrases: Malay Reserve Land, Malay Reservation Enactment, Malay ownership, land ownership transfer


  • Peranan Politik Akhbar Suara Rakyat 194548
    (The Political Role of the Suara Rakyat Newspaper 194548)

    Ishak Saat

    Abstrak: Era selepas Perang Dunia Kedua memperlihatkan beberapa orang anak muda Perak telah bertekad untuk menerbitkan akhbar tempatan di Perak. Mereka ialah Ahmad Boestamam, Abdul Samad Ahmad, Muhammad Hanif, Zulkifli Ownie, Dahari Ali, Musa Ahmad dan Haji Ramli Said. Dengan berbekalkan semangat untuk membela bangsa Melayu, mereka telah bertindak nekad merampas dan mengambil alih pejabat percetakan akhbar Perak Shimbun pada bulan Ogos 1945. Dengan tindakan itu, terbitlah akhbar Suara Rakyat bagi golongan radikal Melayu Perak pada 8 September 1945 di Ipoh, Perak. Akhbar Suara Rakyat merupakan akhbar yang memupuk kesedaran berpolitik dalam kalangan masyarakat Melayu di Tanah Melayu. Dengan berfokuskan matlamat perjuangan Melayu Raya, akhbar ini berperanan penting dalam melahirkan Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya (PKMM). Walaupun tempoh usia akhbar ini tidak lama tetapi impaknya berjaya menyedarkan bangsa Melayu melalui penubuhan cawangan PKMM di seluruh Tanah Melayu dan menggugat penjajah serta pendukung-pendukungnya.

    Kata kunci dan frasa:politik akhbar, Suara Rakyat, Ahmad Boestamam, Melayu Raya, Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya

    Abstract: The era following the Second World War saw a number of Perak youths publish a local newspaper. They were Ahmad Boestamam, Abdul Samad Ahmad, Muhammad Hanif, Zulkifli Ownie, Dahari Ali, Musa Ahmad and Haji Ramli Said. In the spirit of defending the Malay race, they took drastic action by seizing and taking over the printing office of the Perak Shimbun in August 1945. With the takeover, the Suara Rakyat newspaper was established for the radical Malay group in Perak on 8 September 1945, in Ipoh, Perak. The newspaper advocated political awareness among the Malay community in the Malay Peninsula with its focus on 'Melayu Raya' and played an important role in setting up the Malay National Party (MNP). In spite of its short existence, it succeeded in raising the awareness of the Malays through the establishment of MNP branches throughout the Malay Peninsula and destabilized the colonial power as well as its supporters.

Keywords and phrases: newspaper politics, Suara Rakyat, Ahmad Boestamam, Melayu Raya, Malay National Party


  • Kefungsian Gaya Bahasa Pengulangan dalam Novel Al-Abrar: Satu Analisis Wacana
    (The Functionality of Repetition in the Al-Abrar Novel: A Discourse Analysis)

    Noriha Basir

    Abstrak: Makalah ini membincangkan kefungsian gaya bahasa pengulangan dalam novel Al-Abrar yang dianalisis menggunakan pendekatan wacana. Tujuan analisis dibuat adalah untuk melihat kefungsian gaya bahasa pengulangan yang ditinjau penggunaannya dalam aras perenggan. Teori Halliday (1985) yang memanfaatkan tema dan rema akan diaplikasikan bagi menjelaskan kefungsian gaya bahasa pengulangan tersebut. Terdapat lapan gaya bahasa pengulangan yang dikenal pasti iaitu pengulangan anafora, simplok, anadiplosis dan paralelisme yang berfungsi sebagai unsur penjelasan, pengembangan, pengharmonian dan penambahan idea dalam perenggan. Pengulangan epizeuksis dan mesodiplosis berfungsi sebagai unsur penegasan dan sokongan hujah. Manakala pengulangan epistrofa dan epanalepsis berfungsi sebagai unsur pelengkap fakta dan penegasan maksud dalam perenggan.

    Kata kunci dan frasa:kefungsian gaya bahasa pengulangan, pendekatan wacana, tema, rema

    Abstract: This article discusses the functionality of repetition in the Al-Abrar novel based on a discourse approach. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the functionality of repetition at the paragraph level. Halliday’s theory (1985) which uses themes and rhemes was used to explain the functionality of repetition in the novel. Eight forms of repetition were identified. Four of them are anaphora, symploke, anadiplosis and parallelism which function as idea explanation, idea expansion, idea harmonization and idea addition respectively. The rest are epizeuxis and mesodiplosis which  function as argument emphasis and support, as well as epistrophe and epanalepsis which function as fact complements and meaning-emphasis in a paragraph.

Keywords and phrases: functionality of repetition, discourse approach, themes, rhemes



    Penglibatan Masyarakat Peribumi dalam Isu Berkaitan Persekitaran: Tinjauan Terhadap Suku Mah Meri di Pualu Carey, Kuala Langat, Selangor
    (Indigenous Community Involvement in Environmental Issues: The Case of the Mah Meri Community of Pulau Carey, Kuala Langat, Selangor)

    Haliza Abdul Rahman

    Abstrak: Masyarakat awam harus dilibatkan secara langsung dalam setiap proses pembangunan yang dirancang dan dijalankan di kawasan mereka dalam usaha mencapai pembangunan mampan. Di peringkat kebangsaan, isu penyertaan awam dalam konteks persekitaran termaktub dalam Akta Kualiti Alam Sekeliling 1974 dan Akta Perancangan Bandar dan Desa 1976. Justeru, sebagai sebahagian masyarakat negara ini, golongan peribumi seperti masyarakat Mah Meri di Pulau Carey seharusnya diberi peluang dan ruang serta dibenarkan terlibat sama dalam proses perancangan, perlaksanaan, penilaian dasar dan projek/program yang akan memberi kesan terhadap kehidupan mereka. Penglibatan dan kerjasama masyarakat peribumi dalam isu yang membabitkan persekitaran seperti hutan dalam kajian ini sangat penting kerana sebagai pihak yang berkepentingan yang mendiami kawasan tersebut, mereka biasanya mahir dan amat memahami keadaan persekitaran setempat di tempat yang mereka tinggal, justeru secara tidak langsung mereka dapat memberi dan menyumbang maklumat asas yang berguna bagi mengelak timbulnya masalah persekitaran yang lebih serius kesan daripada pembangunan yang dijalankan. Hal ini sangat penting diberi penekanan yang sewajarnya kerana, masyarakat awam merupakan benteng terakhir yang berupaya menyelamatkan proses kemusnahan alam sekitar dan sumber aslinya. Walau bagaimanapun, hasil kajian menunjukkan tahap penyertaan dan penglibatan penduduk setempat iaitu suku Mah Meri di Pulau Carey dalam kajian ini terhadap isu-isu persekitaran masih lagi minimum disebabkan kurangnya pengetahuan, pemahaman dan keterdedahan terhadap isu berkenaan.

    Kata kunci dan frasa:Mah Meri, pembangunan mampan, alam sekitar, penglibatan masyarakat peribumi

    Abstract: The public should be involved in every development process that is planned and carried out in their area to ensure sustainable development.  At the national level, the participation of the public in environmental matters is stated in the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and the Town and Country Planning Act 1976.  Therefore, as part of the public, indigenous communities such as the Mah Meri people of Pulau Carey must be given the opportunity and space to be involved in the planning, implementation, policy and project/programme evaluation processes that impact their lives.  It is important that the indigenous people are involved and given the chance to cooperate in issues that concern the environment in which they live such as the forest.  Their knowledge of their living space and their understanding of the surrounding areas make them important stakeholders.  They can provide fundamental information that can help authorities understand the area better and prevent serious environmental problems that may arise due to development.  This is crucial as the public is the final defense against the destruction of the environment and natural resources. However, the findings of the current study show that there is very little participation and involvement of the indigenous community, namely the Mah Meri community of Pulau Carey, in environmental issues in their area due to the lack of knowledge, understanding and exposure to the issue.

Keywords and phrases: Mah Meri, sustainable development, environment, indigenous community involvement



    ISMAIL, Rahil, SHAW, Brian and OOI, Giok Ling. Eds. 2009. Southeast Asian Culture and Heritage in a Globalising World. Surrey, UK: Ashgate, pp. 1–173. ISBN: 978-0-7546-7261-6.