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[ Vol. 25, No. 1, 2018 ]

 

 

 

KEMANUSIAAN
The Asian Journal of Humanities

Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia


Past Issue - Volume 25, No. 1, 2018

  • Editorial
    (Rencana Pengarang)
    Hajar Abdul Rahim

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  • Western Medicine in India as a Colonial Case in Amitav Ghosh’s The Calcutta Chromosome
    Sukanya Mondal and Rashmi Gaur


    Abstract: This paper focuses on the introduction of Western medicine in colonial India and its relationship with indigenous Indian medical practices against the background of Amitav Ghosh’s The Calcutta Chromosome. It tries to locate an alternative narrative of the subalterns who, instead of conceding subordination, actually manipulate the state of the art of contemporary malaria research in early 20th century and reincarnate themselves in a futuristic New York but never let the elites discover their true motive. Simultaneously, it throws light on instances of epistemic violence because of cultural encounters.

    Keywords and phrases: colonialism, South Asia, Western medicine, epistemic violence, knowledge
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  • The Implication of Conjunctive Element Shifts in the Translation of Argumentative Texts
    Siew Hui Sheng, Soh Bee Kwee and Looi Wai Ling


    Abstract: This study attempts to identify the implication of conjunctive element shifts in the Chinese translation of argumentative column articles by an established columnist. More specifically, this study focuses on the implication of a cohesive shift, which includes explicitations, implicitations, shifts and wrong translations of conjunctive elements in the translated text. The texts in this study are argumentative in nature, and the use of conjunctive elements is pivotal in guiding the reader on the flow of the argument at hand. Through indepth analysis and observation, it is found that changes in conjunctive elements can affect a translation in six possible ways: altering the intensity of the message, shifting the focus of the message, altering the tone and manner of the texts, causing repetitious and intrusive translations, changing the interpretation of the text, and altering the conversational-like element in the source text.

    Keywords and phrases: conjunctive elements, translation, argumentative texts, shifts, explicitation
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  • Negotiating Muslim Women’s Rights and Identity in American Diaspora Space: An Islamic Feminist Study of Kahf’s The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf
    Suraiya Sulaiman, Mohammad A. Quayum and Nor Faridah Abdul Manaf


    Abstract: This paper addresses the narrative of a Muslim woman who struggles to negotiate her rights, identity and sense of belonging in an American diaspora space. Despite the difficulties and obstacles of being regarded as an “other” in her adopted homeland, Khadra Shamy, the protagonist in Mohja Kahf’s The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf, chooses to maintain her Islamic identity with a new interpretation of her faith while attempting to build a hybrid identity as an American Muslim. The narrative implies that not all Muslims interpret their religion in the same way and that Muslims identify themselves with Islam to differing degrees. Hence, the media and critics of Islam clearly distort social reality when they depict all Muslims as extremists and all Muslim women as abject individuals. In addition, the employment of Islamic feminism in the analysis of the novel is an approach that can help enhance our knowledge concerning problems connected to the patriarchy that are pertinent in many Muslim communities, including ones in the West. The diaspora space in America has become a platform for Muslim women to gain more freedom, particularly the freedom to negotiate their rights and identities and to reinterpret religious teachings in a new light, a freedom that they may not be able to achieve in some Muslim-majority countries.

    Keywords and phrases: Muslim women’s identities, women’s rights, Islamic feminism, Muslim diaspora, American Muslim
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  • The Influence of Age Cohorts and Social Networks on the Language Choices of the Non-Indigenous Tamil Minority in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
    Ponmalar N. Alagappar, Caesar Dealwis and Maya Khemlani David


    Abstract: This paper reports on the application of age cohorts to the theory of social networks in a study of language choices of Tamil city dwellers in Kuching, Sarawak located on the island of Borneo. This study, which adopts Milroy’s (1980) social networks, focuses mainly on code choices made in the spoken discourse of multilingual Tamils of different age cohorts. Our analysis of data gathered from a one-shot survey and supported by face-to-face interviews shows variations in code choices by age cohort. Code selections within and across the different age cohorts in the home and friendship domains denote the influence of age and social networks among minority Tamils.

    Keywords and phrases: language choices, social networks, code choice, age cohorts, Tamils of Kuching
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  • Unsur Keinggerisan dalam Tajuk Utama Katalog Bercetak Versi Terjemahan Berbahasa Melayu
    Anglicism in the Translated Version of Headlines in Malay Printed Catalogues
    Anis Shahirah Abdul Sukur


    Abstrak: Makalah ini membincangkan isu keinggerisan yang wujud dalam katalog bercetak berbahasa Melayu versi terjemahan. Data kajian terdiri daripada 2,064 tajuk utama yang dikutip secara manual daripada katalog bercetak Cosway dan Avon. Kajian ini menerapkan pendekatan eklektik untuk menganalisis data kajian yang dikumpulkan. Bagi tujuan menganalisis data, kajian ini mengaplikasikan kategori kata pinjaman Heah (1989) dan Puteri Roslina (2012) yang diubah suai, serta definisi kata pinjaman oleh Haugen (1972) untuk mengelaskan unsur keinggerisan yang wujud dalam tajuk utama. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa langkah penterjemahan, khususnya melalui penggunaan prosedur peminjaman telah mewujudkan unsur keinggerisan dalam tajuk utama versi terjemahan. Kategori kata pinjaman pula boleh dikategorikan kepada enam kategori, iaitu kata pinjaman tidak asimilasi, kata pinjaman separa asimilasi, kata pinjaman asimilasi lengkap, kata pinjaman asimilasi ortografi, kata pinjaman majmuk asimilasi dan kata pinjaman asing yang dipendekkan. Berdasarkan kajian yang telah dilakukan, implikasi kajian ini memperlihatkan penterjemahan menyumbang ke arah kesan keinggerisan dalam katalog bercetak versi terjemahan berbahasa Melayu, yang boleh dihuraikan daripada segi kesan positif dan negatif.

    Kata kunci dan frasa: keinggerisan, kata pinjaman, penterjemahan teks media, tajuk utama, katalog bercetak

    Abstract: This paper discusses Anglicism issues in Malay translations of printed catalogues in English. The research data is made up of 2,064 headlines collected manually from Cosway and Avon printed catalogues. This study uses an eclectic approach to analyse the research data collected. Therefore, for the purpose of data collection and analysis, this study utilises and modifies the loanword category in the Malay language proposed by Heah (1989) and Puteri Roslina (2012), and adopts Haugen’s (1972) definition of loanwords, to classify Anglicism that exist in the translation version of advertising headlines. The findings show that translation, especially through the transference procedure, contributes to Anglicism in the said headlines. Loanwords can be classified into six types, namely unassimilated loanword, partially assimilated loanword, wholly assimilated loanword, orthographically assimilated loanword, assimilated compound loanword and truncated loanword. Based on the study conducted, the implication is translation contributes towards the existence of Anglicism in the translated version of Malay printed catalogues, which can be explained from positive and negative impacts.

    Keywords and phrases: Anglicism, loanword, media text translation, headline, printed catalogue
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  • Perkembangan Jamaah Tabligh di Malaysia, 1970–1990-an
    Tablighi Jamaat’s Development in Malaysia, 1970–1990s
    Khairin Sharep


    Abstrak: Jamaah Tabligh merupakan komponen dakwah yang signifikan dalam mengembangkan ajaran Islam di Malaysia. Penyertaan sebahagian Muslim Melayu dalam Jamaah Tabligh pada tahun 1970-an memberi petunjuk bahawa kedudukan Islam mula diberi perhatian secara meluas berbanding sebelumnya. Sehubungan itu, makalah ini membincangkan latar belakang dan cabaran yang dihadapi oleh Jamaah Tabligh dalam menggerakkan dakwah pada tahun 1970-an hingga 1990-an. Temu bual yang dijalankan terhadap ahli dan bekas ahli Tabligh menunjukkan bahawa ajaran Islam yang diterapkan dalam Tabligh adalah relevan dengan kehendak Muslim di Malaysia sebagai manifestasi kepada kehidupan yang lebih mementingkan nilai beragama. Kemantapan Jamaah Tabligh melaksanakan usaha dakwah menyebabkan pemerintah dan masyarakat Melayu membangkitkan isu yang mencabar kredibiliti jamaah tersebut berdasarkan laporan agensi berkaitan serta liputan akhbar tempatan. Justeru, kajian ini menilai respons Jamaah Tabligh mengatasi dakwaan yang dilemparkan dalam posisi defensif sebagai strategi penerusan dakwah mereka.

    Kata kunci dan frasa: Jamaah Tabligh, organisasi, cabaran, Muslim, dakwaan

    Abstract: Tablighi Jamaat is a significant missionary movement towards disseminating of Islamic teaching in Malaysia. Participation of some Malay Muslim in Tablighi Jamaat in the 1970s demonstrated that Muslims were more concerned about Islam prior to that period. Hence, this paper discusses the background and challenges faced by the Tablighi Jamaat in the 1970s–1990s. Interviews were conducted with members and former members of Tabligh revealing that Islam adopted by Tabligh is relevant for Muslims in Malaysia as a manifestation of the life that is more concerned with religious values. The strength of Tablighi Jamaat in implementing the Islamic mission caused both the government and Malay society to raise issues challenging their credibility based on reports published by civil agencies and local newspapers. This study appraises the defensive response by Tablighi Jamaat to resolve the allegations placed upon them as their strategy in perpetuating their preaching mission.

    Keywords and phrases: Tablighi Jamaat, organisation, challenges, Muslim, allegation
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  • Research Note
    A Critical Review of Theoretical Perspectives: From Language Maintenance and Shift to Postmodern/Poststructuralist Bi/Multilingualism
    Aree Manosuthikit


    Abstract: This paper presents a critical review of three theoretical perspectives on language maintenance (LM) and language shift (LS) in minority language contexts. These three perspectives are (1) LS and subtractive bilingualism, (2) reversing LS and additive bilingualism, and (3) a critical perspective on bi/multilingualism. The review aims to demonstrate that much of the LM/LS literature as reflected in the first two perspectives (i.e., LS and subtractive bilingualism, and reversing LS and additive bilingualism) has been dominated by an essentialised view of language and its related concepts (i.e., identity and community) as whole, separate and autonomous entities within the bounds of nationstates. Such perspectives tend to reinforce a simplistic view of LM/LS as an all-or-nothing phenomenon and to advance its pessimistic outlook as language loss or language death. Hence, for a more fruitful framework, this paper presents a critical perspective on bi/ multilingualism that draws on postmodern and poststructuralist theories (Heller 2007a, 2012; Makoni and Pennycook 2007; Pennycook 2010). By seeking to investigate bi/ multilingual speakers’ local language ideologies and practices, this critical perspective enables not only a reconceptualisation of language, identity and community but also a more realistic and hopeful vision of bi/multilingualism in our pluralist, diverse, transnational and translocal world.

    Keywords and phrases: language shift, bi/multilingualism, ideology, practice, postmodernism
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  • Book Review
    Sovereign Women in a Muslim Kingdom: The Sultanahs of Aceh, 1641–1699
    Ingrid Mitrasing

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