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[ Vol. 28, No. 2, 2021 ]




The Asian Journal of Humanities

Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Past Issue - Volume 28, No. 2, 2021

  • Editorial
    Hajar Abdul Rahim

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  • The Times of Raja Bongsu of Johor (±1579–1623)
    Ingrid S. Mitrasing

    Abstract: Raja Bongsu’s significance in one of the most turbulent periods in the history of the sultanate Johor is the subject of this article. Seventeenth-century accounts play a major role in shaping the subsequent knowledge of him. These depict a man who—in a certain context—made decisions which to his own logic were right, but often led to serious problems. In the literature, he is an object of commentary rather than of study. Representations of Bongsu (youngest brother) establish the contours of his position, first as the closest associate of his brother, Sultan Ala’ud-din Ri’ayat Shah III (r. 1579–1615), and as Sultan Abdullah Ma’ayat Shah (r. 1615–1623). He was the Raja Ilir (from the downstream area), in the sources also referred to as Raja Seberang (the other side of the river where he had his fort and his constituency), actively engaging in Johor’s external relations, taking part in discussions and negotiations with foreigners on trade and military missions. His tenure coincided with the arrival and establishment of the Verenigde Nederlandse Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC), as an important factor in the Straits region.

    Keywords and phrases: combat, entanglements, intrusion, treaties, disaster
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  • Wong Cilik in Javanese History and Culture, Indonesia
    Wasino, Endah Sri Hartatik and Fitri Amalia Shintasiiwi

    Abstract: In every country, regional social concepts are of significance in the political environment. In Indonesia, about 40% of the population are ethnic Javanese. Accordingly, their cultural concepts bear a considerable influence on the political map and presidential elections. As a large community, the Javanese hold on to longstanding historical notions of the position of the ruler and the wong cilik or commoner in the mechanics of governance and governmental administration. In Javanese social stratification, the ruler and the people are conceptualised and positioned in different ways compared with governance in modern democratic societies. Two broad social levels can be distinguished the wong cilik, consisting of peasants and the city lower classes, and the priyayi (or ruling elite and high class society). They can be somehow compared with the traditional classification of the proletariat or the working class and the bourgeois, the holders of the means of production. Both have their own social and economic life but have an interdependent relationship of exchanging services and goods. This relationship is known in Java as kawula and gusti, a cultural “patron-client” relation, containing supporting reciprocally based on authority.

    Keywords and phrases: people, commoner, elite, power, patron-client relationship, harmony
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  • Analisis Faktor Terpenting yang Mempengaruhi Corak Hubungan Malaysia-Australia Era Mahathir Mohamad, 1981–2003
    Salient Factors Affecting Malaysia-Australia Patterns of Relationship in the Era of Mahathir Mohamad, 1981–2003
    Rizal Zamani Idris and Asmady Idris

    Abstract: Malaysia-Australia diplomatic relations was established as early as in 1955 when an Australian High Commission was set up in Kuala Lumpur and was later formalised in 1957 when Malaysia gained its independence. Both countries cooperated closely in the areas of defence, education, and trade. Australia regarded Malaysia as its closest ally in the region. However, things began to change when Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad became Malaysia’s Prime Minister (1981–2003). Ties between the two countries were tested with controversial issues that influenced their diplomatic relations, but the overall relationship remained intact. The current study analyses two main factors, namely souring factors, and enduring factors, that had influenced the pattern and character of the Malaysia-Australia relations in the era of Mahathir. It utilised a combination of methods, i.e. discussions from the English School theory, data collection through document analysis and interviews. The study found that the pattern of the Malaysia-Australia relations could be best understood and explained by the arguments offered by the English School theory of international relations. This is an important contribution to the study of Malaysia-Australia relations during Mahathir’s era.

    Keywords and phrases: Malaysia, Australia, Mahathir, souring factors, enduring factors, diplomatic relations

    Abstrak: Hubungan diplomatik Malaysia-Australia telah terjalin seawal 1955 apabila pejabat Pesuruhjaya Tinggi Australia ditubuhkan di Kuala Lumpur dan dimeterai secara rasmi apabila Malaysia mencapai kemerdekaan pada tahun 1957. Kedua-dua negara ini telah bekerjasama dalam pelbagai bidang seperti pertahanan, pendidikan, perdagangan dan lain-lain. Malah, Australia menganggap Malaysia sebagai sekutu paling rapat di rantau ini. Sungguhpun begitu, hubungan ini mula berubah apabila Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad menjadi Perdana Menteri Malaysia (1981–2003). Hubungan bilateral Malaysia-Australia telah diuji dengan beberapa isu kontroversi. Isu-isu tersebut telah mempengaruhi hubungan Malaysia dan Australia namun tidaklah menjejaskan hubungan dua hala secara keseluruhannya. Kajian ini menganalisis faktor terpenting yang telah mempengaruhi corak dan karakter hubungan Malaysia dan Australia era Mahathir. Faktor terpenting ini dibahagikan kepada dua: faktor “pengeruh” (souring factor) dan faktor “pengukuh” (enduring factor). Metodologi kajian adalah berdasarkan gabungan perbincangan menggunakan teori English School, pemerolehan data secara analisis dokumen dan temu bual. Pada akhir kajian ini, penulis mendapati bahawa corak hubungan Malaysia dan Australia pada era Mahathir dapat difahami dan dijelaskan dengan baik melalui perspektif yang diutarakan oleh teori English School. Oleh yang demikian, hal inilah yang menjadi sumbangan utama makalah ini dalam kajian hubungan Malaysia-Australia di bawah kepimpinan Mahathir.

    Kata kunci dan frasa: Malaysia, Australia, Mahathir, faktor pengeruh, faktor pengukuh, hubungan diplomatik
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  • Penterjemahan Berasaskan Khalayak: Konsep dan Pelaksanaan
    Crowdsourcing Translation: Concept and Implementation
    Noor Ashikin Abd Nasir and Hasuria Che Omar

    Abstract: The development of the digital world has impacted translation activities significantly. It has enabled users to participate in translation activities widely through user-generated translation (UGT). The shift in the concept of translation from passive users-oriented to a wider concept of translation that considers the roles and contributions of text producers as well as readers, taking advantage of the development of Web 2.0, has taken users to a new level of translation through UGT. This article answers questions related to (1) the concept of user or audience-based translation (crowdsourcing translation), (2) the implementation of translation through the said method, and (3) its implications on the status statement of “professional” and “non-professional” translators based on the context of user/ crowd-based translation. Through qualitative-descriptive observations, the concept of translation is discussed, while the translation production procedures as well as the status tagging of translator’s status are examined through a case study on platform. The Theory of User/Crowd-Based Internal Model and the Crowd Community Model inform the discussion on the implementation of crowd-based translation procedures addressed in this article.

    Keywords and phrases: web development, user generated translation, crowd-based translation, digital platform, professional and non-professional translators

    Abstrak: Perkembangan digital dan Internet telah memberikan kesan yang signifikan terhadap aktiviti penterjemahan. Kebolehan pengguna untuk turut serta dalam aktiviti penterjemahan secara meluas dilihat berlaku dalam konteks terjemahan yang dijana pengguna (user-generated translation, UGT). Perubahan konsep penterjemahan daripada berorientasikan penggunaan yang pasif kepada penterjemahan yang mengambil kira peranan dan sumbangan pengeluar teks serta pembaca menerusi perkembangan Web 2.0 telah membawa pengguna kepada paradigma baharu yang terhasil melalui UGT. Makalah ini bertujuan menjawab persoalan yang berkaitan dengan (1) konsep penterjemahan berasaskan pengguna atau khalayak (crowdsourcing translation), (2) pelaksanaan penterjemahan menerusi kaedah ini, dan (3) implikasinya terhadap penyataan status penterjemah “profesional” dan “bukan profesional” berdasarkan konteks penterjemahan berasaskan khalayak. Menerusi pemerhatian kualitatif-deskriptif, konsep penterjemahan telah diperincikan, manakala tatacara penghasilan terjemahan serta penentuan status penterjemah telah diteliti melalui kajian kes ke atas platform Teori Model Dalaman Berteraskan Pengguna dan Model Komuniti telah dimanfaatkan untuk membantu menjelaskan lagi pelaksanaan tatacara penterjemahan berasaskan khalayak yang menjadi fokus kepada penulisan makalah ini.

    Kata kunci dan frasa: pembangunan web, terjemahan dijana pengguna, terjemahan berasaskan khalayak, platform digital, penterjemah profesional dan bukan profesional
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  • Social Meanings in School Linguistic Landscape: A Geosemiotic Approach
    Erna Andriyanti

    Abstract: As an approach to multilingualism, the study of linguistic landscape (LL) in educational settings is still underexplored. LL study is significant to disclose various aspects of language existence and use. In the school context, it might reveal what and how languages are used among school members and their relevance to education. This article aims to examine the emerging themes of signs’ messages in school LL and the contribution of multimodal social semiotic elements to the signage social meanings. It studied 890 signs from five senior high schools in Yogyakarta, Indonesia and used a geosemiotic approach to analyse the verbal and visual texts. The findings reveal eight major themes of messages: (1) location or place direction, (2) morality and religion, (3) environment and energy, (4) school identity and information, (5) activities, (6) how to comport oneself, (7) science and knowledge and (8) rules, regulations and acts. The three main modes (language, image and colour) in the school LL serve the functions to communicate and to represent the schools’ social reality relevant to the emerging themes through iconic and symbolic semiotic systems. The school LL is a multifaceted social construct that also reveals the relationship between the sign makers and the addressees.

    Keywords and phrases: linguistic landscape multimodal, social semiotic analysis, multilingualism, icon, symbol
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  • Benih Mardeka in the Political Movement in East Sumatra, 1916–1923
    Budi Agustono, Kiki Maulana Affandi and Junaidi

    Abstract: This study aims to explain the movements, relationships and roles of Benih Mardeka newspaper in the political movement in East Sumatra from the period 1916 to 1923. Political movements took place as a result of rapid developments in the early 20th century in East Sumatra into a prosperous plantation area. The movements were carried by organisations delivered through propaganda tools or media, namely newspapers. One of the newspapers that loudly voiced national movement and nationalism in East Sumatra was Benih Mardeka newspaper, which began to appear in 1916. This study uses historical methods that include heuristic, source criticism, interpretation and historiography. The results showed that many articles in Benih Mardeka frequently criticised the issues of colonialism and capitalism. Meanwhile, the poor life of plantation workers became propaganda material for Benih Mardeka in criticising colonial and self-government as well as capitalists, namely plantation companies. Benih Mardeka was also a mouthpiece or tool for Sarekat Islam in conveying the idea of nation and nationalism. Hence, it can be concluded that Benih Mardeka consistently gave the voice of national movement and nationalism in the political movement and the press in East Sumatra.

    Keywords and phrases: Benih Mardeka, East Sumatra, labourers, political movement, press
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  • Vitaliti Semasa Bahasa Melayu di Negara Brunei Darussalam
    Najib Noorashid

    Abstract: The interminable “Malay vs. English” debate is ubiquitous in the Malay world. Although Malay is the national language, a cultural and identity marker for the Malays, the globalisation and increasing importance of English has prompted concerns on the decline of the Malay language among scholars and the general public. By applying a modified triangulation model with Language and Attitudes Model, Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale, and Language Vitality and Endangerment Frameworks, this article discusses language attitudes and vitality of two important variants of Malay in Brunei: Standard Malay and Brunei Malay, amid the bilingual environment in the country, based on data gathered involving Brunei Malay speakers and claims by Malay scholars. The results show that the language attitudes among Bruneian youth towards both languages are positive and both variants are preserved through local maintenance efforts. Both variants also exist complementary to English depending on contexts and audiences. This article also criticises previous claims on the “threatened” status of Malay language as it also disapproves the accusation that English will become a threat the status and preservation of Malay.

    Keywords and phrases: language attitude, language vitality, Malay, English, Brunei Darussalam

    Abstrak: Perdebatan mengenai “pertelingkahan bahasa Melayu dan bahasa Inggeris” sentiasa wujud di alam Melayu. Walaupun bahasa Melayu merupakan bahasa rasmi/ bahasa kebangsaan dan juga bahasa penanda budaya dan identiti orang Melayu, masih terdapat kekhuatiran terhadap kemungkinan kepupusan bahasa tersebut dalam kalangan para sarjana dan masyarakat Melayu. Perkara ini terjadi kerana peningkatan kepentingan bahasa Inggeris dalam era globalisasi. Dengan mengaplikasikan Model Sikap Bahasa dan metode Skala Penilaian Gangguan Antara Generasi Luasan serta Rangka Kerja Keberdayaan dan Kepupusan Bahasa, makalah ini membincangkan sikap bahasa dan daya hidup semasa bagi dua variasi bahasa Melayu iaitu bahasa Melayu standard dan bahasa Melayu Brunei dalam persekitaran dwibahasa di Negara Brunei Darussalam, berdasarkan bukti-bukti kajian analisis terhadap penutur bahasa Melayu Brunei dan tanggapan beberapa sarjana bahasa Melayu. Hasil analisis mendapati sikap para belia terhadap kedua-dua variasi bahasa adalah positif dan kewujudan dilestarikan melalui usaha-usaha penyelenggaraan setempat, selain kedua-dua variasi bahasa ini saling melengkapi dengan bahasa Inggeris mengikut kesesuaian konteks dan audiens. Makalah ini turut menyangkal tanggapan yang menyatakan kedudukan dan daya hidup semasa bahasa Melayu terancam, selain turut menyanggah dakwaan kewujudan bahasa Inggeris mengancam status dan pengekalan bahasa Melayu.

    Kata kunci dan frasa: sikap bahasa, vitaliti bahasa, bahasa Melayu, bahasa Inggeris, Brunei Darussalam
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  • The 1786 Acquisition of Pulau Pinang: Unveiling the Light Letters, Revisiting Legal History Case Materials and R. Bonney’s Kedah 1771–1821
    Ahmad Murad Merican and Abd Ur-Rahman Mohamed Amin

    Abstract: This article reviews the “acquisition” of Pulau Pinang by Francis Light and the East India Company (EIC) in the year 1786. The discussion centres on the contested history of Pulau Pinang and the collective memory of the Malays. It reveals discussions between Francis Light and the sultans of Kedah on the supposed “acquisition” and sometime leasing of the island to the EIC. It is based on doubts casted by R. Bonney in his 1971 book Kedah 1771–1821: The Search for Security and Independence. This is supported by legal history and the exchanges in the Light Letters between Light and two Kedah rulers. The letters are kept at the Archives of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. This article reveals that there is no agreement of 1786. However the landing of Light at Tanjong Penaga in 1786 has been legitimised in the historiography prompt and proper. Seen from the absence of any treaty, the “acquisition” of Pulau Pinang by the EIC in that year is treated as “illegal”.

    Keywords and phrases: Pulau Pinang, East India Company, Francis Light, Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah, acquisition
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