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[ Vol. 23, No. 1, 2016 ]




The Asian Journal of Humanities

Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Past Issue - Volume 23, No. 1, 2016

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  • Editorial
    Rencana Pengarang


  • The United States, the Cold War and Indonesia-People's Republic of China Relations, 1950–1955
    Richard Mason

    Abstract: The Cold War in the Third World was certainly much more dynamic than a mere clash of power and ideology between the belligerent big powers. In newly emerging areas like Southeast Asia for instance, many of the newly independent states have made clear from the outset that they do not wish to take sides in the Cold War, wanting to be non-aligned. For the United States, however, the Cold War was an uncompromisable situation and held that nonalignment was self-deception, naïve and even dangerous. This essay examines the interplay between the American policy of containment and the Indonesian policy of non-alignment with particular reference to the United States' reactions to Indonesia's relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC). The discussion covers the period from 1950 through to the Bandung Conference in 1955. An examination of the conflict between the American policy of "containment" and Indonesia's policy of "non-alignment" during the 1950s would serve to illustrate that the Cold War in Asia was much more dynamic that just clashes between the belligerent big powers.

    Keywords and phrases: United States, Cold War, Indonesia, China, containment, non-alignment

  • Objectivity in History: An Analysis
    K. Anbalakan

    Abstract: The controversy as to whether or not historical truth is objective is as old as the profession itself. However the issue became a hotly debated point of contention only after Ranke openly and confidently declared that truth in history was not only objective but achievable. Though initially Ranke's argument found great support from historians all over Europe, and the United States as well, however by the beginning of the 20th century scepticism began to be raised among philosophers and philosophically minded historians on the accuracy of historical accounts written by historians. One of the reasons for this scepticism was the belief that historical explanation was not based on any empirical or scientific methods but rather expressed by the historian based on his personal assumption of what could possibly have happened. As such, it was argued that historical truth could at best be true only relative to the values and needs of the time of the historian who writes it. Due to their emphasis on relativism these critics later came to be referred as Relativists. The debate between the Relativists and those who staunchly believe that history is objective and achievable continues to this day. This article makes a modest attempt to analyse the objections put forth by the Relativists against objectivity to argue that history, indeed, is objective and also achievable.

    Keywords and phrases: objectivity, Relativists, Ranke, Becker, Beard

  • Pahang State History: A Review of the Published Literature and Existing Gaps
    Abu Talib Ahmad

    Abstract: This essay argues on the need to focus on state history—in this case, Pahang state history—as a way of enhancing the national history. As a starting point, a review of the existing literature highlights gaps which require attention in the writing of such history for Pahang. The review starts with the traditional texts relating to Pahang history followed by the major works that have been written thus far: the 1891–1895 anti-British uprising; the Orang Asli in state history; migration; change before 1957; the post-1957 in Pahang history; museums and state history; and gaps in both the visual and printed narratives on Pahang history. The discussion is based on secondary works on Pahang published in both Malay and English.

    Keywords and phrases: state history, national history, review, gaps, secondary works

  • Guanxi, Networks and Eloquence: Wu Tiecheng in the 1911 Revolution in Jiujiang, China
    Tan Chee Seng

    Abstract: This paper aims to examine how Wu Tiecheng (1888–1953), one of the Kuomintang (KMT) and Republican China senior statesmen, had established and developed his three crucial assets: guanxi ( 关系 relationships or connections), networks and eloquence since his formative years (1888–1910) until the 1911 Revolution in Jiujiang, China. His uniqueness as a revolutionary who was equipped with those three elements nurtured during the formative years of his youth was subsequently reflected during the revolution. Concurrently, this will explore prior and during the revolution, what types of guanxi and networks he had tried to establish, subsequently develop and even utilise. Furthermore, this paper also attempts to look into how those guanxi, networks and even eloquence had assisted Wu in his endeavours to become one of the leading revolutionaries in this revolution. In probing into the above mentioned aspects, it would trace the activities he had involved and roles played. Three essential elements apart from moulding and influencing Wu, had become part of his social capital which benefitted him and continuously to be utilised in the coming years. Those had given impetus to his rise within the KMT and Republican political circles, and also made him a distinct figure among peers.

    Keywords and phrases: Wu Tiecheng, 1911 Revolution, guanxi, networks, eloquence

  • Kegiatan Ekonomi Jepun di Sabah, 1950-an hingga 1980-an: Peranan dan Sumbangannya dalam Pembangunan Ekonomi
    (Japanese Economic Activities in Sabah, 1950s–1980s: Its Role and Contributions in Economic Development)
    Md Saffie Abdul Rahim

    Abstrak: Kekalahan dalam Perang Pasifik menyebabkan Jepun terpinggir dari sebarang hubungan diplomatik antarabangsa. Hanya selepas meletusnya Perang Dingin pada lewat 1940-an baharulah Jepun kembali menjalinkan hubungan ekonomi dan politik dengan Asia Tenggara. Dalam konteks Sabah, hubungan dua hala antara kedua-dua negara hanya terjalin selepas penarikan semula sekatan kemasukan orang Jepun ke Sabah pada Oktober 1955. Sejak itu, selama 30 tahun masyarakat Jepun mula berpeluang terlibat dalam pelbagai kegiatan ekonomi dan seterusnya menyumbang dan memberi impak dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi dan pemindahan teknologi di Sabah. Keterlibatan dan sumbangan ini secara tidak langsung telah menghapuskan tanggapan umum bahawa Jepun di awal pasca perang merupakan negara dan bangsa yang berperilaku jahat dan kejam. Esei ini meneliti jenis sektor ekonomi, sumbangan dan impak yang dibawa oleh kegiatan ekonomi dan pelaburan Jepun di Sabah pada tahun 1950-an hingga 1980-an. Selain itu, makalah ini turut membincangkan cabaran dan masalah yang dihadapi dalam hubungan Sabah-Jepun. Skop perbincangan dibataskan sehingga 1980-an memandangkan dari tahun 1950-an hingga 1980-an, Sabah mula mencapai pembangunan ekonomi yang berterusan.

    Kata kunci dan frasa: Perang Pasifik, ekonomi Sabah, orang Jepun, pemindahan teknologi, pembangunan ekonomi

    Abstract: The defeat in the Pacific War caused Japan to lose all its diplomatic relationships with foreign countries. However, after the start of the Cold War in the late 1940s, Japan renewed its economic and political relationships with Southeast Asian countries. The bilateral relation between Japan and Sabah was re-established after the abolition of restrictions against Japanese entry into Sabah in October 1955. Since then, for 30 years the Japanese were involved in various economic activities that had an impact on Sabah's economic growth and technology transfer. These help to change the negative perceptions of the Japanese community during the early years after the Pacific War when they were perceived as wicked and vindictive. This essay shows the Japanese community had a significant role in Sabah's economic development in the 1950s until the 1980s. The essay also discusses the challenges and problems in Sabah-Japan relations. The scope of the discussion covers the period from the 1950s to the 1980s when Sabah began to achieve continuous economic development.

    Keywords and phrases: Pacific War, Sabah economy, Japanese, technology transfer, economic development