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[Vol. 36, No. 1, 2018]



Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Print ISSN: 0127-4082
Online ISSN: 2180-4273
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 35, Supp. 1, 2017
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, MyCite, Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), JURN, ASEAN Citation Index (ACI), BrillOnline Biblipographies

Kajian Malaysia is listed in Scopus and ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.

News: Kajian Malaysia bags inaugural Ministry of Education CREAM Award
:: Aims & Scope

Kajian Malaysia is a refereed journal committed to the advancement of scholarly knowledge of Malaysia by encouraging discussion among the several branches of social sciences and humanities. The journal publishes articles, reviews and notes which by their content or approach, is of interest to a wide range of scholars. Although the journal would focus mainly on works in the field of Malaysian studies, articles with a theoretical content may also be published.

Kajian Malaysia is published by Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia by an autonomous Editorial Board drawn from staff members of the University. The Board is assisted by a panel of distinguished scholars from local and foreign universities.

The journal pursues a bilingual publishing policy (Bahasa Malaysia and English). The Editorial Board reserves the right to decide which language an article will appear in, and will undertake to provide professionally acceptable translations.


:: Publication Ethics

Kajian Malaysia adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:


:: Current Issue

Volume 36, No. 1, 2018

Title: The Golden Era of the Malaysian Film Industry: Cross-Cultural Dialogue and Negotiations of Ethnicity in a Budding Nation
Author: Angeline Wong Wei Wei, Shanthini Pillai & Ong Puay Liu
Source: Kajian Malaysia 36(No. 1) 1–24, 2018
- Abstract  

The period of the 1950s to the late 1960s has often been touted as the Golden Era of the Malaysian film industry. This paper examines the extent to which films of the Golden Era, specifically P. Ramlee's Sesudah Suboh (1967) and Gerimis (1968), i.e. two significant films of the era which portray stories about inter-ethnic romantic relationships, visualise the possibilities of inter-ethnic engagement through the films' narrative and the implied issues of ethnic and cultural differences. The discussion highlights the fact that there are significant moments of inter-ethnic dialogue and engagements between the characters within the narratives of the two films which outweigh the evidences of inter-ethnic prejudices that are portrayed in the films. The main conclusion that is derived from the film analysis is that the two films are significant spaces through which the borders between identities and cultures can be negotiated in the form of meaningful dialogue and engagement.

Keywords:Malaysian, film, cross-culture, inter-ethnic, dialogue

Title: The Malayan Indian Congress and Early Political Rivalry Among Indian Organisations in Malaya, 1946-1950
Author: Shanthiah Rajagopal & Joseph Milton Fernando
Source: Kajian Malaysia 36(No. 1) 25-42, 2018
- Abstract  

The Malayan Indian Congress (MIC) emerged amid the chaos of the immediate postwar period in Malaya to represent the interests of the minority Indian community. Several Indian leaders who had been involved in the Indian Independence League during the war decided that a national organisation was needed to serve as the voice of the Indian community. Within a few years, the party became the leading representative of the Indian community. But the MIC's transformation was not without serious challenges from within and from other Indian political movements. This article examines the early period of the party's history to trace the growth of the MIC into the leading political movement of the Indians in Malaya, its internal problems and significant rivalry with other Indian-based organisations during this period and the issues that arose. The article shows that a pragmatic approach by the party leadership, in particular its discontinuance of the boycott of the 1948 Federation Constitution and its principled position on citizenship, enabled the party to overcome the challenge posed by rival Indian organisations to become the leading voice of the Indians by 1950.

Keywords: Malayan Indian Congress, Malayan Indians, Malayan political movements, Federation of Indian organisations

Title: Determinants of Blood Donation Status in Malaysia: Profiling the Non-Donors, Occasional Donors, and Regular Donors
Author: Lim Mei Ling, Thock Sheng Hui, Andrew K. G. Tan & Gwee Sai Ling
Source: Kajian Malaysia 36(No. 1) 43–62, 2018
- Abstract  

The blood shortage situation is a perennial concern in Malaysia. This study examines the sociodemographic and lifestyle related factors associated with blood donation status of non-donors, occasional donors, and regular donors. Discerning the donation status of blood donors is important as studies have noted that it is more cost-effective to reactivate occasional (consisting of existing or former) donors than to recruit new donors. Based on stratified random sampling measures, primary data were obtained from 550 Malaysian adults aged 18–60 years from Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Ordered probit analysis was conducted and marginal effects of various factors on blood donation status calculated. Results indicate that sociodemographic factors associated with donor status include gender, marital status, education level, and income level. Lifestyle related factors affecting donor status comprise working hours, family history, and fear of the donation process. It is concluded that donor awareness and education programs should be focused on females, singles, and individuals in the lower socioeconomic echelons. Donor retention strategies should be aimed at those with previous family history of blood recipients. Measures should be implemented to accommodate busy people and those fearful of the donation process. These strategies could be undertaken not only in Malaysia but also in other countries with comparable sociodemographic and health care settings.

Keywords: blood donation, Malaysia, non-donor, occasional donor, regular donor, ordered probit model

Title: Malaysian Chinese Language Newspapers and National Identity: A Study of the Roles of Sin Chew Daily in Chinese Cultural Preservation and Nation Building
Author: Ng Miew Luan & Lee Yuen Beng
Source: Kajian Malaysia 36(No. 1) 63–103, 2018
- Abstract  

As the leading Chinese language newspaper in Malaysia, Sin Chew Daily remains focused on emphasising and preserving Chinese cultural and nationalist discourses. On one hand, Sin Chew Daily continues to play a significant role in supporting government policies such as the promotion of ethnic relations and nation-building efforts within multicultural Malaysia. On the other, as a Chinese language newspaper, Sin Chew Daily has never neglected its role in preserving Chinese culture. Using the mixed methods approach, namely content analysis as the first phase of data collection and in-depth interview as the second phase of data collection, this paper examines the agenda of Chinese cultural preservation and nation-building within the context of ethnic relations and national identity by Sin Chew Daily. Based on the relationship of the media and society, and the market and the State, this paper will argue how Chinese cultural preservation through news reporting of cultural rights and Chinese education remains the priority for Sin Chew Daily as compared to the agenda of nation-building. The findings of this study indicate that Sin Chew Daily continues to successfully play its role in representing the news of Chinese education issues, cultural and religious rights, national identity issues and news that promote good interethnic relations. However, Sin Chew Daily needs to enhance its role in establishing a constructive debate platform for the Malaysian civil society to decide on its nation-building "formula" that is acceptable by all while clearly communicating the nation-ofintent of the Malaysian Chinese community to the ruling government.

Keywords: Chinese language newspapers, culture, nation building, ethnic relations, national identity

Title: The Mismatches Between Minority Language Practices and National Language Policy in Malaysia: A Linguistic Landscape Approach
Author: Wang Xiaomei & Xu Daming
Source: Kajian Malaysia 36(No. 1) 105–125, 2018
- Abstract  

The paper takes a linguistic landscape (LL) approach to the language use of two minority communities in Malaysia. A total of 689 digital photos of public signs were collected from two main streets in Chinatown and Little India, Kuala Lumpur and were analysed quantitatively with the aid of FileMaker 10.0. For each of the signs in the database, it is determined whether it is a monolingual or a multilingual sign, what language(s) is/are used in the sign, and which of the languages used is the dominant one in the case of a multilingual sign. On basis of the above characteristics of the signs, the visibility of the different languages in the linguistic landscape was analysed. The analysis shows the following ranking order of the visibility: Chinese, English and Malay in Chinatown; and English, Malay and Tamil in Little India. These findings show that the linguistic practices of the two ethnic minorities deviated from the language policy of the state, which is to promote Malay, the national language. The mismatches between the state policy and the minority community practice are explained both by the non-use value of identity expression and the use value of communication of LL and by the political and economic motivations of language policy.

Keywords: linguistic landscape, Chinese, Tamil, Malay, language policy

Title: Private Sector Early Child Care and Education in Malaysia: Workforce Readiness for Further Education
Author: Lydia Foong, Palanisamy K. Veloo, Mogana Dhamotharan & Carynne Loh
Source: Kajian Malaysia 36(No. 1) 127–154, 2018
- Abstract  

Studies from several countries have shown that qualified educators in early childhood programmes make a significant difference in providing quality Early Child Care and Education (ECCE) have resulted in improved outcomes for young children. Given this fact, the Malaysian government has proposed to raise the minimum qualification of all preschool teachers to a diploma in early childhood education by 2020. This study examines the status of the private sector early childhood workforce in Malaysia and their readiness for further training. A stratified sample comprising 3,087 teachers was asked to complete a paper-andpencil questionnaire that explored their readiness for further education. Results of the study show that a large proportion of private sector teachers are young, under qualified, inexperienced and underpaid. Teachers are aware of the need to upgrade their skills and are ready to do so if given the opportunity. The study suggests that there is an urgent need to attend to private sector teacher professionalism so that quality early childhood care and education can be provided to the very young in the country by the private sector.

Keywords: early childhood workforce readiness, work conditions, professionalism