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[Vol. 34, No. 2, 2016]



Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Print ISSN: 0127-4082
Online ISSN: 2180-4273
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 34, No. 2, 2016
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, MyCite, Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), JURN

Kajian Malaysia is listed in Scopus and ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.

News: Kajian Malaysia bags inaugural Ministry of Education CREAM Award
:: Aims & Scope

Kajian Malaysia is a refereed journal committed to the advancement of scholarly knowledge of Malaysia by encouraging discussion among the several branches of social sciences and humanities. The journal publishes articles, reviews and notes which by their content or approach, is of interest to a wide range of scholars. Although the journal would focus mainly on works in the field of Malaysian studies, articles with a theoretical content may also be published.

Kajian Malaysia is published by Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia by an autonomous Editorial Board drawn from staff members of the University. The Board is assisted by a panel of distinguished scholars from local and foreign universities.

The journal pursues a bilingual publishing policy (Bahasa Malaysia and English). The Editorial Board reserves the right to decide which language an article will appear in, and will undertake to provide professionally acceptable translations.


:: Publication Ethics

Kajian Malaysia adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:


:: Current Issue

Volume 34, No. 2, 2016

Title: The Influence of Perceived Social Support and Self-Efficacy on Resilience among First Year Malaysian Students
Author: Shreas Suresh Narayanan & Alexius Cheang Weng Onn
Source: Kajian Malaysia 34(2) 1–23, 2016
- Abstract  

This study sought to determine whether perceived social support and self-efficacy were significant predictors of resilience among students when the effects of other variables such as stress, age, gender, and cumulative grade point average (CGPA) were controlled for. The effect of the interaction between perceived social support and self-efficacy on resilience was also tested. The study sample consisted of 377 first year local undergraduate students from a public university in Malaysia. Multiple regression was used to analyse the data. The results indicated that both perceived social support and self-efficacy were significant predictors of resilience as higher scores on perceived social support and on self-efficacy scales predicted higher resilience. The interaction effect between these variables was also positive and significant. Further analysis using ordered probit model revealed that when a student scored higher on levels of perceived social support as well as on self-efficacy, it lowered the probability of the student being in the low resilience category and increased the probability of being in the moderately resilient and highly resilient categories. The interaction effect remained significant across all categories of resilience.

Keywords: ordered probit, perceived social support, resilience, self-efficacy, university students

Title: The Marginalisation of Malaysian Texts in the English Language Curriculum and Its Impact on Social Cohesion in Malaysian Classrooms
Author: Shanthini Pillai, P. Shobha Menon & Ravichandran Vengadasamy
Source: Kajian Malaysia 34(2) 25–58, 2016
- Abstract  

In this paper, we seek to investigate the place that local literature has been given in Malaysian Education in the English Language Subject for Secondary Schools in Malaysia. We argue that literature engenders a space for the nation to share in the experiences and feelings of groups and situations that might never be encountered directly. It often engages with the realities of a nation through diverse constructions of its history, its realities and communal relations. As such we posit that literature can be a significant tool to study the realities of Malaysian nationhood and its constructions of inter-ethnic relationships, and ultimately, an effective tool to forge nation building. The discussion focuses on investigating the role that literature has played in Malaysian education in the context of engaging with ethnically diverse Malaysian learners and whether text selection has prioritised ethnic diversity in its Malaysian context. Samples used for discussion centre on literature in English in Malaysian Education. The paper concludes that more attention needs to be paid to the inclusion of local literature as it can be an important communicator of signifiers of ethnic identity and subsequently play an important role in facilitating inter-ethnic engagement and understanding in Malaysian schools.

Keywords: social cohesion, Malaysian literature in English, inter-ethnic engagement, literature text selection, role of literature

Title: A Comparative Study of Malay and Chinese Trickster Tales: Sang Kancil, the Rabbit and the Rat
Author: See Hoon Peow
Source: Kajian Malaysia 34(2) 59–73, 2016
- Abstract  

Trickster tales are told not only for amusement but also to convey lessons or morals via their humorous characters and sequence of plots. The characters, the stories and the morals of the stories can be a reflection of the culture and the values of the people in the culture from which the tales originate. Every culture is believed to have its own trickster tales. In Malaysia, unlike the popular Malay trickster tale Sang Kancil, not much is said about Chinese trickster tales, such as The Rabbit and The Rat. This paper juxtaposes the characters and motifs of these trickster tales to negotiate the similarities and linkages between the Chinese and Malay cultures amid striking differences in cultural values and societal norms. The findings not only provide evidence of the heuristic value of the current study but also suggest several directions for future investigations in the study area.

Keywords: Sang Kancil, rabbit, rat, trickster, Chinese, Malay

Title: Penglibatan Sosial dan Pembudayaan Nilai Murni Melalui Pembelajaran Tidak Formal dalam Kalangan Penduduk Bandar Putrajaya
Social Participation and Values Culturalisation through Non-Formal Learning among Urban Residents of Putrajaya
Author: Abdul Aziz Rahman, Abdul Razaq Ahmad, Jalaluddin Abdul Malek & Mohd Mahzan Awang
Source: Kajian Malaysia 34(2) 75–100, 2016
- Abstract  

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji penglibatan sosial, pembudayaan nilai melalui pembelajaran tidak formal dan amalan nilai murni dalam kalangan penduduk di bandar raya pintar Putrajaya, Malaysia. Seramai 414 orang penduduk bandar raya pintar Putrajaya telah mengambil bahagian dalam kajian ini. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan soal selidik berdasarkan Teori Pembelajaran Tidak Formal Orang Dewasa dan adaptasi soal selidik yang berkaitan dengan nilai komuniti bandar. Bagi menentukan kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan soal selidik, kajian rintis telah dilakukan. Kajian rintis ini melibatkan 30 orang penduduk bandar raya pintar Putrajaya dan hasil nilai alfa Cronbach menunjukkan setiap item yang digunakan bagi mengukur konstruk yang dikaji mempunyai nilai kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi. Analisis data telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan inferensi. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa penglibatan sosial dalam kalangan penduduk bandar raya pintar Putrajaya berada pada tahap rendah serta pembudayaan nilai melalui pembelajaran tidak formal dan amalan nilai murni berada pada tahap sederhana. Analisis inferensi menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan bagi penglibatan sosial penduduk bandar raya pintar Putrajaya berdasarkan jantina. Selain itu, tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan berdasarkan jantina terhadap pembudayaan nilai melalui pembelajaran tidak formal dan amalan nilai murni. Namun, hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan terhadap penglibatan sosial, pembudayaan nilai melalui pembelajaran tidak formal dan amalan nilai murni berdasarkan taraf pendidikan. Kajian ini juga mendapati bahawa terdapat sumbangan yang signifikan antara penglibatan sosial dan pembudayaan nilai melalui pembelajaran tidak formal terhadap amalan nilai murni dalam kalangan penduduk bandar raya pintar di Putrajaya. Implikasi kajian ini mendapati bahawa pihak berkuasa perlu meningkatkan usaha, program dan aktiviti dalam meningkatkan nilai dalam komuniti bandar.

Kata kunci: penglibatan sosial, pembelajaran tidak formal, amalan nilai murni, pembandaran, kejiranan

This study aims to investigate the social participation, values culturalisation through the means of informal learning and values practices among residents of Putrajaya Smart City. A total of 414 residents participated in this study. Data collection was conducted by using a questionnaire based on Theory of Adults' Informal Learning and questionnaires related to rural community values. A pilot study which involved 30 residents of Putrajaya was conducted to test the validation and reliability of the questionnaire. The results from the Cronbach alpha revealed that all items that were used to measure the constructs have high reliability value. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Results showed that the social participation among the residents is at low level and the values culturalisation via informal learning and values practices is at moderate level. Inferential analysis illustrated that there is a significant difference for social participation according to gender. However, there is no significant difference between genders for the values culturalisation through informal learning and values practices. In regard to education level, there is a significant difference on social participation, values culturalisation through informal learning and values practices. This study also found that there is a significant contribution between social participation and values culturalisation through informal learning on values practices among the residents of Putrajaya. The implication of this study suggests that various efforts, programmes and activities has to be implemented to enhance values among the urban community. Based on these findings, this study suggests that the local authorities should take further actions and initiatives to enhance urban community values.

Keywords: social participation, informal learning, values culturalisation, neighbourhood

Title: Tahap dan Penentu Indeks Modal Sosial di Malaysia
Level and Determinants of Social Capital Index in Malaysia
Author: Rahmah Ismail, Noor Dzaharah Mahfodz & Noorasiah Sulaiman
Source: Kajian Malaysia 34(2) 101–121, 2016
- Abstract  

Modal sosial merupakan salah satu elemen penting dalam mengurangkan insiden kemiskinan kerana ia mampu mempengaruhi tingkat pendapatan individu atau isi rumah dalam sesebuah negara. Namun, kajian lepas yang melihat isu modal sosial masih kurang terutamanya di Malaysia. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tahap dan mengenal pasti penentu indeks modal sosial di Malaysia berdasarkan data 2,443 orang ketua isi rumah yang telah dikutip pada tahun 2012 di lima buah negeri di Semenanjung Malaysia; iaitu Kedah, Selangor, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Johor dan Terengganu. Analisis kajian ini melibatkan dua peringkat; iaitu menghitung indeks modal sosial dan menganggar model regresi untuk mengenal pasti penentu indeks modal sosial. Dapatan kajian ini menunjukkan 72.9% ketua isi rumah berada pada tahap indeks modal sosial peringkat sederhana dan tinggi, iaitu 0.5 dan ke atas. Peratus ketua isi rumah di negeri Selangor yang berada pada tahap indeks modal sosial yang tinggi adalah lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan di negeri-negeri lain. Selanjutnya dapatan kajian menunjukkan penentu indeks modal sosial yang signifikan adalah status perkahwinan, lokasi, negeri dan pendapatan isi rumah. Dapatan kajian ini memberi implikasi bahawa Malaysia perlu menjalankan program yang dapat meningkatkan pendapatan individu atau isi rumah demi meningkatkan indeks modal sosial mereka yang selanjutnya meningkatkan tahap pembangunan ekonomi Malaysia.

Kata kunci: modal sosial, indeks modal sosial, isi rumah, insiden kemiskinan

Social capital is one of the important elements to reduce the incidence of poverty because of its ability to influence an individual's or household's income of a country. Nevertheless, past studies that examine social capital issue are rather lacking especially in Malaysia. This study aims to identify the level and determinants of social capital index in Malaysia based on 2,443 heads of households' data collected in 2012 in five states in Peninsular Malaysia; Kedah, Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Johor and Terengganu. The analysis involves two steps; computing social capital index and estimating regression models to identify the determinants of social capital index. The study finds that 72.9% of heads of households are having moderate and high social capital index of 0.5 and above. The percentage of heads of households with higher social capital index is higher in Selangor compared to other states. Further, the study demonstrates that the significant determinants of social capital index are marital status, location, states, and household income. The findings from the study imply that Malaysia must implement programmes that can raise an individual's or household's income in order to increase their level of social capital index, which subsequently will improve Malaysia's level of economic development.

Keywords: social capital, social capital index, household, incidence of poverty

Research Note

Title: Initiating an Oral History Project in a Multicultural UNESCO World Heritage Site of George Town, Penang, Malaysia: Challenges and Outcomes
Author: Mahani Musa & Kuah Li Feng
- Abstract  

The recognition accorded to George Town as UNESCO World Heritage Site on 7 July 2008 has opened a new challenge for the state government in terms of heritage management and town planning. As the listing was conducted on the basis of a "living" cultural site, the government has since initiated several moves to safeguard the city's intangible cultural heritage. One such initiative comes from the George Town World Heritage Incorporated (GTWHI) which initiated a pilot oral history documentation project in 2013. Using the project as a case study, this paper seeks to illustrate the role of an oral history project in creating public awareness and appreciation for heritage as well as in encouraging community engagement in the heritage discourse.

Keywords: Penang, world heritage site, intangible cultural heritage, oral history, community engagement

Book Review

Title: The Oil Palm Complex: Smallholders, Agribusiness and the State in Indonesia and Malaysia, edited by Rob Cramb and John F. McCarthy. Singapore: NUS Press, 2016, 512 pp.
  Harvey Neo

Title: Malaysian English: Language Contact and Change, Siew Imm Tan. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2013, xvii + 241 pp.
  Hajar Abdul Rahim