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[Vol. 37, No. 2, 2019]



Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Print ISSN: 0127-4082
Online ISSN: 2180-4273
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 37, No. 2, 2019
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, MyCite, Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), JURN, ASEAN Citation Index (ACI), BrillOnline Biblipographies

Kajian Malaysia is listed in Scopus and ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.

News: Kajian Malaysia bags inaugural Ministry of Education CREAM Award
:: Aims & Scope

Kajian Malaysia is a refereed journal committed to the advancement of scholarly knowledge of Malaysia by encouraging discussion among the several branches of social sciences and humanities. The journal publishes articles, reviews and notes which by their content or approach, is of interest to a wide range of scholars. Although the journal would focus mainly on works in the field of Malaysian studies, articles with a theoretical content may also be published.

Kajian Malaysia is published by Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia by an autonomous Editorial Board drawn from staff members of the University. The Board is assisted by a panel of distinguished scholars from local and foreign universities.

The journal pursues a bilingual publishing policy (Bahasa Malaysia and English). The Editorial Board reserves the right to decide which language an article will appear in, and will undertake to provide professionally acceptable translations.


:: Publication Ethics

Kajian Malaysia adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:


:: Current Issue

Volume 37, No. 2, 2019

Title: The Universities and University Colleges Act in Malaysia: History, Contexts and Development
Author: Wan, Chang Da
Source: Kajian Malaysia 37(2) 1–20, 2019
- Abstract  

In Malaysia, Akta Universiti dan Kolej Universiti (AUKU) is the main legislation that governs public universities. It was enacted in 1971 and amended six times that had profound implications for the development of higher education, particularly on the governance and autonomy of public universities. However, the days of AUKU are numbered as the current Government in its election manifesto has slated for the act to be revoked and abolished. This paper examines the historical and chronological development of AUKU, more specifically the socio-political-economic situation at the time of enactment and each subsequent amendment. In addition, the article also explores thematic issues related to AUKU, namely academic freedom and autonomy as well as the control of the State and Government on public universities.

Keywords: governance, legislation, autonomy, state-university relationship

Title: Apprehending the Culprits: The Discourse of Anti-Profiteering and Law Enforcement in Goods and Services Tax (GST) News Reports
Author: Ong Cheng Teik and Hajar Abdul Rahim
Source: Kajian Malaysia 37(2) 21–47, 2019
- Abstract  

A series of false starts and deferments since the 1980s preceded the eventual implementation of the goods and services tax (GST) in Malaysia on 1 April 2014 amidst adverse economic conditions, public resentment and hostility from certain quarters. In order to neutralise such negative reception, the former Barisan Nasional (BN) government embarked on a series of initiatives, programmes and campaigns to educate the public on the benefits of the GST to the country, one of which was the setting up of GST Malaysia Info, a website whose original aim was to disseminate positive news and to promote the GST to the public. As the recent implementation of the GST bore on all sections of the Malaysian society, a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of selected news articles on the website was carried out to uncover the various discourses related to the GST to portray the government’s position on the issue of the GST. The paper will present part of the findings of a larger study related to the discourse of anti-profiteering and law enforcement and the representation of its attendant aspects and circumstances. Predicated on Fairclough’s (1989; 2001; 2015) Critical Discourse Analysis, the study sheds light on the mainstream media’s favourable representation of the former BN government and its machinery and pejorative representation of the GST perpetrators and offenders through the use of lexical words with experiential values.

Keywords: goods and services tax (GST), mainstream media, Critical Discourse Analysis, anti-profiteering, law enforcement

Title: Women in Malaysian Seaweed Industry: Motivations and Impacts
Author: Velan Kunjuraman, Aisah Hossin and Rosazman Hussin
Source: Kajian Malaysia 37(2) 49–74, 2019
- Abstract  

Malaysian development plans have often emphasised the importance of issues relating to women’s position in the society. In the context of the seaweed industry in Sabah, East Malaysia, a capacity building programme has been initiated by the government agencies, which is known as the Mini Estate System (MES) and the Cluster System (CS) with the aim to transform the conventional seaweed cultivation activity to a new approach based on scientific technology. In this programme, local seaweed cultivators use modern technology to improve their skills and knowledge. However, with regard to women’s participation in the seaweed industry, few new capacity building programmes have been introduced. Therefore, this article analyses women’s participation in the seaweed cultivation activity implemented through MES and CS in two islands, Selakan and Bum Bum, in the District of Semporna, Sabah. The qualitative research approach with in-depth interviews and participant observation were applied in this study. The results of the study indicate that women participants through MES and CS received few key benefits. The benefits gained by the women include: (1) enhancement of knowledge and skills of a new approach for seaweed cultivation activity, (2) improvement of monthly income, (3) enhanced awareness in their involvement in multiple business opportunities, and (4) increase of systematic management at the workplace by attending various workshops and seminars. In terms of policy and practical implications, this study suggests that continuous support from various stakeholders including government and private companies are vital in order to sustain the seaweed industry in Malaysia, as well as to enhance rural community development, especially among women.

Keywords: women, seaweed industry, participation, stakeholders, empowerment

Title: Study Abroad and Behavioural Changes: The Case of Malaysian Learners of Japanese
Author: Wong Ngan Ling and Emily Lau Kui-Ling
Source: Kajian Malaysia 37(2) 75–94, 2019
- Abstract  

Student mobility and enculturation are important keywords in today’s context of tertiary education. This is because university students are expected to acquire various soft-skills and competency in their educational pursuits, besides securing a degree. Aiming at understanding how studying abroad can enhance these skills and competency, this study used self-narratives as an approach to elicit information from 12 students who had studied abroad in Japan for a year. Specifically, this study examines what they learnt and how their exposure through intercultural communication in the host country had impacted their real-life experiences in terms of interactional behavioural changes. The participants’ perspectives indicated that they had improved under the mobility programmes in terms of language proficiency, enculturation, self-dependence and self-development. The outcome noted from the study will be of benefit to educators who can use this information as recommendations to support students in utilising their knowledge and intercultural skills for employability purposes.

Keywords: behavioural changes, Malaysian learners of Japanese, intercultural competency, self-narrative, study abroad

Title: Di Sebalik Krisis Kewangan Negeri-Negeri Melayu Bersekutu, 1920-1924
The Other Side of The Federated Malay States Financial Crisis, 1920–1924
Author: Mohd Shazwan Mokhtar
Source: Kajian Malaysia 37(2) 95–119, 2019
- Abstract  

Artikel ini bertujuan mengkaji krisis kewangan Negeri-Negeri Melayu Bersekutu (NNMB) yang berlaku antara tahun 1920 hingga 1924. Pembentukan NNMB dan Majlis Mesyuarat Persekutuan (MMP) telah membolehkan kerajaan British menguasai pentadbiran kewangan persekutuan menerusi Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British di Tanah Melayu. Penguasaan pentadbiran kewangan ini bermatlamat untuk mengabsahkan segala sumbangan kewangan dari NNMB kepada kerajaan British. Walaupun begitu, pada akhir tahun 1920 pentadbiran kewangan British di NNMB tercabar apabila berlakunya penyusutan lebihan baki kewangan persekutuan. Krisis bertambah serius apabila kerajaan NNMB tidak mempunyai baki wang tunai pada akhir tahun 1921. Pengkaji-pengkaji awal lebih bersetuju faktor pemusatan pentadbiran kewangan oleh kerajaan NNMB antara tahun 1913 hingga 1919 merupakan sebab utama berlakunya krisis kewangan ini. Bertentangan dengan itu, bukti yang diperoleh daripada rekod kewangan dan pentadbiran NNMB, Prosiding MMP, Laporan Suruhanjaya Penghematan, CO 717 dan FCO 141 membuktikan berlakunya pertumbuhan lebihan baki kewangan sebelum tahun 1920. Bagi menyelesaikan masalah tersebut, objektif artikel ini ialah menilai semula faktor krisis kewangan NNMB. Hasil kajian membuktikan bahawa, pemusatan pentadbiran kewangan bukanlah faktor sebenar yang menyebabkan krisis kewangan NNMB. Terdapat bukti kukuh yang menunjukkan faktor kegagalan Laurence N. Guillemard selaku Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British memahami akaun kerajaan NNMB menyebabkan krisis kewangan. Walaupun begitu, langkah penyelesaian oleh Guillemard sejak tahun 1922 berjaya menyelesaikan krisis kewangan NNMB apabila berlakunya pertumbuhan lebihan baki kewangan NNMB yang mendadak pada tahun 1924. Justeru, artikel ini berhujah pemusatan pentadbiran kewangan bukanlah faktor utama krisis kewangan yang berlaku di NNMB antara tahun 1920 hingga 1924.

Kata kunci: sejarah ekonomi, pentadbiran British, ekonomi imperial, Tanah Melayu

This article aims to study the Federated Malay States’ (FMS) financial crisis which occurred between the year 1920 and 1924. The formation of the FMS and the Federal Council (FC) allowed the British government to control the federal financial administration through the British High Commissioner. This financial administration aimed to legalise all financial contributions from FMS to the British government. However, by the end of 1920, the British financial administration in FMS faced a deficit problem in the federal financial balances. The crisis grew serious after the FMS Government had no cash balance by the end of 1921. The early researchers concurred that the over-centralisation of the financial administration by FMS government between 1913 and 1919 was the main reason for the financial crisis. Contrary to that, the evidence obtained from the FMS financial and administrative records, the FC Proceedings, the Retrenchment Commission Report, CO 717 and FCO 141 documents showed a growing financial surplus before the year 1920. In order to resolve this problem, the objective of the article is to re-evaluate the FMS financial crisis factor. The findings show that the over-centralisation of the administration of finance was not the real factor that caused the FMS financial crisis. There is strong evidence showing that the failure of Laurence N. Guillemard as the British High Commissioner to understand FMS government’s account led to the financial crisis. Nevertheless, the solution by Guillemard since 1922 has solved the FMS's financial crisis due to the rapidly growing FMS financial surplus in 1924. Hence, this article argues that the over-centralisation of finance was not the main reason for the FMS financial crisis between the year 1920 and 1924.

Keywords: economic history, British administration, imperial economy, Malay States

Title: Pengaruh Kefahaman dan Penerimaan Rakyat Malaysia Terhadap Perjuangan Ideologi Daesh
Malaysian Attitude and Perception on Daesh’s Ideological Struggle
Author: Che Mohd Aziz Yaacob, Kamarulnizam Abdullah and Mohd Sofian Omar Fauzee
Source: Kajian Malaysia 37(2) 121–145, 2019
- Abstract  

Pengembangan ideologi kumpulan Daesh yang disebarkan melalui media sosial merupakan satu fenomena yang menarik dalam menganalisis radikalisme dan terorisme global masa kini. Daesh telah menggunakan pendekatan keganasan seperti pengeboman berani mati, serta penyembelihan dan pembakaran tangkapan bagi mencapai objektif politik perjuangan mereka. Ideologi kumpulan ini yang bersandarkan kepada Salafi dengan pengaruh kuat idea Wahabbi telah berkembang dari Asia Barat sehingga ke Asia Tenggara termasuk Malaysia. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengenal pasti sikap dan pendirian rakyat Malaysia yang beragama Islam terhadap perjuangan politik Daesh. Kajian menggunakan metode gabungan kuantitatif dan kualitatif yang dijalankan melalui pendekatan soal selidik dan focus group discussion (FGD). Sebanyak 5,232 responden dipilih secara rawak mewakili tiga sektor, iaitu keselamatan, pendidikan dan orang awam. Setiap data yang dikutip dibahagikan kepada zon utara, tengah, selatan, timur, Sabah dan Sarawak. Daripada jumlah tersebut, hanya 60 responden terpilih untuk menyertai FGD. Tahap kefahaman terhadap Daesh menunjukkan hanya 79.2% sahaja rakyat Malaysia yang berjaya menjawab empat daripada sembilan soalan dengan betul. Kajian ini mendapati 90.8% rakyat Malaysia menolak, manakala 9.2% lagi menerima ideologi politik Daesh. Penolakan dan penerimaan rakyat Malaysia dipengaruhi oleh pelbagai faktor seperti latar belakang keluarga dan pendidikan, permasalahan peribadi dan akses ke media alternatif. Walaupun peratus penolakan terhadap Daesh dilihat besar, penglibatan responden daripada dua sektor utama negara (keselamatan dan pendidikan) merupakan satu perkara yang agak membimbangkan.

Kata kunci: deologi Daesh, terorisme, sikap, persepsi, rakyat Malaysia

The expansion of the Daesh ideology through social media is an interesting phenomenon in analysing contemporary global radicalism and terrorism. Daesh has been using several onslaught tactics, such as suicide bombing, and slaughtering and burning people to achieve its political objectives. Based on radical Salafism with heavy influence from the Wahabbi theocratic ideas, Daesh’s ideological influences have spanned from the Middle East to Southeast Asia. Malaysia is no exception. The major aim of this study is, therefore, to identify attitudes and perceptions of Malaysian Muslims on Daesh. A mixed method, qualitative and quantitative, was employed through survey and focus group discussion (FGD). Respondents were randomly selected. The survey was conducted on 5,232 Malaysians who represented three selected sectors viz. defence and security, education and the general public. The data collection is divided into six different zones: the north, south, central, and eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. Out of that, 60 respondents were chosen as the interviewees for the FGD. The result shows that only 79.2% of the Malaysians could answer correctly four out of nine questions asked regarding their understanding of Daesh. The survey reveals that 90.8% Malaysians rejected Daesh, while only 9.2% accepted the group. Malaysian acceptance and rejection to Daesh has been influenced by many factors such as family and educational backgrounds, personal problems, and access to alternative media, among others. Although the majority of the respondents rejected Daesh, their association with two strategic sectors, education and security, would be a cause for concern.

Keywords: Daesh ideology, terrorism, attitude, perception, Malaysians

Title: Ketakutan Terhadap Jenayah dalam Kalangan Pelajar Universiti di Malaysia: Analisis Terhadap Faktor Penyumbang
Fear of Crimes among University Students in Malaysia: Analyses of Contributing Factors
Author: Farahah Rosni, Wan Shahrazad Wan Sulaiman and Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin
Source: Kajian Malaysia 37(2) 147–171, 2019
- Abstract  

Ketakutan terhadap jenayah yang muncul menjadi isu yang membimbangkan dan dianggap masalah sosial kerana ia memberikan kesan yang negatif kepada kesejahteraan mental dan fizikal seseorang individu. Walaupun topik ini mendapat perhatian daripada penyelidik-penyelidik Barat sejak tahun 1960-an, namun masih tidak banyak kajian tentang ketakutan terhadap jenayah yang dijalankan di Malaysia. Tambahan pula, corak statistik jenayah di Malaysia yang tidak stabil dan persepsi rakyat Malaysia bahawa indeks jenayah semakin meningkat pada saban hari menjadikan isu ini wajar untuk dikaji. Oleh itu, objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menganalisis faktor penyumbang ketakutan terhadap jenayah dengan mengkaji faktor jantina, kawasan tempat tinggal dan sejarah menjadi mangsa jenayah terhadap tahap ketakutan, tahap keselamatan, persepsi risiko menjadi mangsa dan tingkah laku berjaga-jaga. Kajian ini dijalankan di beberapa universiti di Malaysia dengan menggunakan kaedah tinjauan melalui borang soal selidik yang diadaptasi daripada Fear of Crime in America Survey terhadap 303 orang pelajar universiti prasiswazah berwarganegara Malaysia. Hasil kajian ini mendapati bahawa pelajar perempuan mempunyai tahap ketakutan yang lebih tinggi dan kerap mengamalkan tingkah laku berjaga-jaga berbanding pelajar lelaki. Pelajar dari bandar dan luar bandar mempunyai tahap ketakutan, tahap keselamatan, dan persepsi risiko menjadi mangsa yang hampir sama, namun, pelajar dari bandar lebih banyak mengamalkan tingkah laku berjaga-jaga berbanding pelajar dari luar bandar. Kajian ini juga mendapati bahawa tiada perbezaan tahap ketakutan, tahap keselamatan dan persepsi risiko antara pelajar yang pernah menjadi mangsa dengan tidak pernah langsung menjadi mangsa. Hasil kajian ini telah memberikan idea untuk mengkaji isu ketakutan terhadap jenayah di Malaysia dengan lebih mendalam dan dari pelbagai aspek pada masa akan datang.

Kata kunci: keselamatan, ketakutan terhadap jenayah, pelajar universiti, persepsi risiko, tingkah laku berjaga-jaga

Fear of crime has emerged as an issue of concern and perceived as a social problem since it leads to negative effects towards mental and physical well-being of an individual. Although this topic has received attention from Western researchers since the mid-1960s, however, not many researches were done on fear of crime in Malaysia. Furthermore, because of the fluctuating nature of crime statistics in the country, together with the perceptions that crime is increasing on a daily basis, this issue is worth researching. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the contributing factors of fear of crime according to gender, types of residential areas, and victimisation effect on the level of fear, level of security, perceived risk of becoming a victim and precautionary behaviours. This study was conducted in a few universities in Malaysia by using a survey method through questionnaires adopted from the Fear of Crime in America Survey that was given to 303 undergraduate Malaysian students. This study shows that female students exhibit a higher level of fear and often adopt precautionary behaviours compared to male students. Students from rural and town areas had a similar level of fear, level of security, perception of risk of becoming a victim, however, students from the town areas used precautionary behaviours more often than students from the rural areas. The study also found no differences in the level of fear, level of security and risk perception among students who had been victimised and who had not been one. This study has provided an insight for more diverse and profound future researches on the issue of fear of crime in Malaysia.

Keywords: crime, safety, fear of crime, university students, perception of risk, precautionary behaviours

Research Note
Title: Malaysian Popular Music and Social Cohesion: A Focus Group Study Conducted in Kuching, Kota Kinabalu and Klang Valley
Author: Adil Johan and Shazlin Amir Hamzah
Source: Kajian Malaysia 37(2) 173–195, 2019
- Abstract  

In March and April 2019, a total of 12 focus groups were conducted in Kota Kinabalu, Kuching and Klang Valley. The study interviewed informants about their everyday experiences and preferences in consuming popular music. It also sought to determine specific popular and patriotic songs, made and circulated within Malaysia from the 1960s to 2000s, that garnered a wide appeal and fostered a sense of collective Malaysian identity amongst the informants. The informants were divided into four demographic groups in each location: (1) youths (aged 19 to 39), (2) business owners or entrepreneurs (any age), (3) professionals (any age), and (4) arts practitioners and musicians. This research note provides a brief review of the existing studies on Malaysian popular music that inform the study. However, despite the significant amount of research on Malaysian popular music from the 1980s until the present day, there has yet to be a study that considers the responses and attitudes of Malaysian citizens – as music listeners and consumers – toward Malaysian popular music. More so, the study hopes to move beyond critical approaches that only focus on contestations between music producers and performers with the authority-defined structures and policies of the nation-state. We propose an epistemological shift to focus on the musical preferences and everyday experiences of Malaysians as well as music producers and performers to determine if consuming popular music provides an unofficial and everyday-experienced space for social cohesion, integration and collective flourishing amidst a diverse multicultural nation.

Keywords: Malaysia, popular music, nationalism, integration, social cohesion, flourishing