.: Journal Menu
     Journal Home
     Editorial Board
     Current Issue
     Past Issues
     Forthcoming Issue
     Submission Guidelines
     Journal Policies
     Subscription Form
     Contact Us
  
  .: Related Links
     Universiti Sains Malaysia
     Universiti Sains Malaysia    Press
     ScholarOne™ Manuscripts
     Sistem Maklumat Jurnal



SCImago Journal & Country Rank
View content online
[Vol. 35, Supp. 1, 2017]

 

 

Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Print ISSN: 0127-4082
Online ISSN: 2180-4273
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 35, Supp. 1, 2017
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, MyCite, Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), JURN

Kajian Malaysia is listed in Scopus and ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.

News: Kajian Malaysia bags inaugural Ministry of Education CREAM Award
 
:: Aims & Scope
 

Kajian Malaysia is a refereed journal committed to the advancement of scholarly knowledge of Malaysia by encouraging discussion among the several branches of social sciences and humanities. The journal publishes articles, reviews and notes which by their content or approach, is of interest to a wide range of scholars. Although the journal would focus mainly on works in the field of Malaysian studies, articles with a theoretical content may also be published.

Kajian Malaysia is published by Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia by an autonomous Editorial Board drawn from staff members of the University. The Board is assisted by a panel of distinguished scholars from local and foreign universities.

The journal pursues a bilingual publishing policy (Bahasa Malaysia and English). The Editorial Board reserves the right to decide which language an article will appear in, and will undertake to provide professionally acceptable translations.

 

:: Publication Ethics
 

Kajian Malaysia adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:

 

:: Current Issue

Volume 35, Supp. 1, 2017

CONTINUING LEGACIES: ENGAGING CUSTODIANS IN HERITAGE CONSERVATION

Guest Editor: Rahimah Abdul Aziz, Ong Puay Liu, Sarah Aziz and Sharina Abdul Halim
 

Title: Introduction: Continuing Legacies: Engaging Custodians in Heritage Conservation
Author: Rahimah Abdul Aziz, Ong Puay Liu, Sarah Aziz and Sharina Abdul Halim
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 1–10, 2017
 
- Abstract  

This special issue of Kajian Malaysia on "Continuing Legacies: Engaging Custodians in Heritage Conservation" with focus in Malaysia is to draw attention to the multi-dimensional aspects of continuing legacies and the role of custodians that cross-cut various disciplines. The issue presents a collection of nine refereed research articles. They are written by a group of researchers from various disciplines and background of Faculties and Research Institutes at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Seven of the papers are written by the Governance and Education for Heritage Conservation Research Group members based on findings of their various research on the subject, while two papers are written by colleagues from other research groups but who are also focusing on heritage conservation. This is to emphasise that the success of heritage conservation requires multidisciplinary efforts and that heritage conservation should be a concern of all. It also underlines the fact that the success of any heritage conservation efforts depend on the combination of top-down, bottom-up grassroots approach.

Title: Examining Community Engagement in Heritage Conservation through Geopark Experiences from the Asia Pacific Region
Author: Sharina Abdul Halim and Nor Azizah Ishak
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 11–38, 2017
 
- Abstract  

Conserving heritage is significant because it reflects and builds local community identities, assists in promoting sustainability and provides sense of place. Geopark concept promotes three main components, namely conservation of heritage resources, provision of tourism infrastructure and local socioeconomic development. Strengthening local community engagement through active participation is pertinent to ensure success of geopark implementation. Engaging local community in heritage conservation collaboratively with other stakeholders is crucial as it has the potential to transform values, practices and overall behaviour towards sustainability. Nevertheless, how local community is engaged has been contested because often the term community engagement used in development process does not fully reflect the extent to which local community is actually able to participate. The main objective of this article is to examine local community engagement in heritage conservation, using geopark experiences from the Asia Pacific region. Analysis of findings will be discussed qualitatively in twofold: firstly, based on results from reviews of secondary data resources and official geopark websites, secondly through survey obtained from 30 participants, from aspiring and UNESCO Global Geoparks member countries, who attended the Asia Pacific Geopark Network (APGN) Regional Course on Geoparks in 2015 and 2017. Heritage conservation, in geopark-based activities, is expressed in various ways, amongst which as a cultural process, such as social interaction of festivals and exhibitions, as well as in natural resource management. In general, main findings indicated there are room for opportunities in geopark-based activities to encourage social learning from local community and stakeholders on heritage conservation. It is pertinent that local community are engaged in activities that would strengthen their sense of belonging as local custodians towards promoting sustainable resource utilisation in balancing conservation with development.

Keywords: heritage, conservation, community engagement, geoparks, Asia Pacific

Title: Heritage Conservation: Authenticity and Vulnerability of Living Heritage Sites in Melaka State
Author: Rahimah Abdul Aziz
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 39–58, 2017
 
- Abstract  

Melaka Historical City, together with George Town, Penang, were conferred the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site (WHS) in 2008. One of the requirements in order to remain in the listing is a high degree of local community participation in its continued conservation. This is in order that the local communities who are regarded as stakeholders and custodians of the sites would actively participate in their protection. Similarly, living heritage sites in Melaka seek to recreate historical settings to simulate past time periods, thus providing visitors a glimpse of what it would be like to live in the past. Such sites call for the participation and involvements of the ethnic-specific group to shape and preserve its cultural heritage and identity. Living heritage sites can also be regarded as a way for the community to seek relevance especially in a multi-cultural society. However, authenticity is among the major concerns of the living heritage sites as well as other factors that they encountered in the face of modernisation and development that subsequently contribute to their vulnerabilities. The focus of this article is the living heritage sites in Melaka. The discussion is based on the study of the three living heritage sites in Melaka. The living heritage sites are Kampung Morten, Kampung Chetti and Kampung Portugis. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with various key individuals of the three communities as well as focus group discussions with members of the community. The study shows that although there are concerns that need to be addressed the informants believe that through the living heritage sites the community members are able to express their cultural identity, pride and knowledge to their younger members as well as share them with the society in general.

Keywords: authenticity, vulnerabilities, heritage conservation, living heritage sites, cultural heritage

Title: Community Involvement for Sustainable World Heritage Sites: The Melaka Case
Author: Ong Puay Liu
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 59–76, 2017
 
- Abstract  

Melaka and Georgetown, Penang, received UNESCO recognition as a World Heritage Site (WHS) in 2008. "Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca", both Melaka and Georgetown have heritage of outstanding universal value (OUV), which means cultural and/or natural significance so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and be of common importance for present and future generations. Sustainable protection of this heritage is thus of highest importance to the international community. In UNESCO-initiated conventions such as the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage 2003 and UNESCO World Heritage Centre's Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention 2015, participation of communities and individuals that create, maintain and transmit such heritage is given much emphasis. To what extent is the concept of a community-based heritage protection and conservation adopted by authorities in WHSs in their efforts to safeguard the heritage of OUV and sustain the status of their respective sites? This article argues that for sustainable continuity as a WHS, the local communities of WHSs should be regarded as the subject of development, and not as object of development, where they should be one of the principal actors, and actively involved in decisionmaking that will impact their living conditions and life. Based on Melaka as a case study, this article discusses the participation of the local communities in the planning and management of heritage protection and conservation of Melaka as a WHS. A series of consultations and focus group discussions were conducted with the various communities in 2013–2014. The research findings indicate that community participation in the planning and management process is minimal and that the local community is largely excluded from this process.

Keywords: culture heritage, community involvement, Straits of Malacca, historic cities, Melaka

Title: Connecting Legend and Science through Geomythology: Case of Langkawi Unesco Global Geopark
Author: Tanot Unjah and Sharina Abdul Halim
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 77–89, 2017
 
- Abstract  

Integrating scientific and cultural knowledge is pivotal in the conservation of a geopark. Using case study from the Langkawi UNESCO Global Geopark, the main aim of this article is to discuss the connection between scientific aspects of geological landscape and myths, legends and folklore in the area (or also known as geomythology). Langkawi's geological landscape comprises five key rock formations known as Machincang, Setul, Singa, Chuping and igneous rock of Gunung Raya. Each formation consists of exposed rock diversity that resulted from tectonic activity and weathering process caused by waves and surface runoff water. Langkawi's geological landscapes are bestowed with distinctive rock diversity that hold within them mysterious legends, myths and folklore, in which connect local communities with landscapes. Among the well-known geomythology, or legends associated within these geological landscapes, are Gunung Machinchang, Gunung Raya and Belanga Pecah (Battle of the Giants of Mat Chinchang and Mat Raya), Gua Cherita (Legend of The Roman Emperor's Son and mythical giant bird) and Pulau Dayang Bunting (Tale of A Pregnant Maiden). The interpretation of landscape from a scientific perspective together with cultural knowledge has revealed an intrinsic link between geology and its people. In a sense, geomythology carries great significance to geopark development, not only for conservation purpose but it also serves as a means to boost local tourism that can in turn facilitate the local socio-economic development of the island.

Keywords: heritage, integrated interpretation, geosites, knowledge tourism, Langkawi geopark

Title: Governance Networks for Effective Custodians' Participation in the Sustainability of Langkawi as a Geopark
Author: Geraldine K. L. Chan
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 91–118, 2017
 
- Abstract  

The Global Geopark Networks (GGN) created the concept of "geopark" as a geographically designated area that contains geological, ecological, historical cultural resources for community sustainable development primarily through tourism activities. The Langkawi archipelago has always been rich in such resources and heritage, and was conferred the geopark status by GGN in 2007. Since then, the government and some private, non-governmental organisations have been involved in many geopark projects and activities. Some of them are members of the top down governance system while other parties work independently of one another. For Langkawi to sustain in the long run as a successful and economically developed geopark without the depletion of its geological, ecological, cultural and historical resources, its governance system can be further improved. Effective custodian participation is best achieved through proper governance network system whereby the networks are established between at least two or more organisational and non-organisational custodians irrespective of their social status, ethnicity, gender, wealth and income levels. Specifically, the custodians should work closely together and establish networks in a transparent, accountable, responsible, fair, trustworthy and consistent manner. Effective participation should be in terms of shared norms of behaviour such as cooperation, assistance and influence. Furthermore, such effective participation is based on shared views, shared values, shared norms and other shared aspects guided to some extend by basic network principles such as reciprocity and mutuality. This implies that similarity or commonality is a key feature in social networks formation of the custodians. Trust is also present as a network element. For Langkawi to sustain as a geopark in present and future times, effective participation from all custodians can be achieved through governance networks or social networks. This paper will present some findings from two empirical studies conducted on effective governance networks for the success of Langkawi as a geopark.

Keywords: governance, governance networks, social networks, sustainability, custodians

Title: Urban Revitalisation for a City's Soul: The Case of Kampong Bharu
Author: Halimaton Saadiah Hashim, Sarah Aziz and Nik Mohd Ruiz Razy
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 119–140, 2017
 
- Abstract  

It is an accepted dogma by urban planning gurus that livable and sustainable cities, neighbourhoods and communities are those with souls that differ according to the communities' socio-cultural, economic, political and physical environments and perspectives. The soul of a city is in its people. This article presents findings from a study on the revitalisation of Kampong Bharu. Being only a conceptual study, the findings are only based on literature review, observations through walkabouts and drive-throughs, and interviews with custodians and major stakeholders. The article presents the results of the conceptual study: the concept of a city's soul in urban planning, the urban village concept, history and characteristics of Kampong Bharu the urban village, manifestations of its soul. The article will also present key issues in revitalising Kampong Bharu that is, custodians, mandates and institutional arrangement, heritage-led development, and a brief assessment of actions in urban heritage conservation and revitalising of Kampong Bharu's soul. The study concludes by supporting the move to revitalise Kampong Bharu and its soul. However, a deeper research is recommended to untangle the conundrum created by its legal and institutional arrangements; establishing a formal definition of Kampong Bharu's soul; the development of a set of criteria for planning a heritage-led development; and cataloging tangible and intangible Malay cultural elements in Kampong Bharu.

Keywords: urban revitalisation, a city's soul, the Malay soul, heritage-led development, urban redevelopment

Title: Engagement of Undergraduate Students as Custodians in Heritage Conservation Enrichment
Author: Pue Giok Hun
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 141–163, 2017
 
- Abstract  

In 2005, National Heritage Act was enacted by the Government of Malaysia as an effort to protect and preserve tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the country. Despite its significance and well intentions, the Act remains weak and limited in terms of its definition, scope, implementation and awareness. This, in particular, becomes problematic when it comes to intangible cultural heritage (ICH) as it is living and continuously evolving. The increasingly rapid globalisation at the end of the 20th century causes more communities to become susceptible to frequent changes. In addition, Malaysian studies itself is still in the early phase of forming and building the breadth and depth of local knowledge of the country and its society. One particular aspect of concern is knowledge about minority ethnic groups with the potentials to be considered as regional heritage such as the various Peranakan communities in Malaysia. Hence, it is a race against time to have the communities' rich and invaluable culture documented for future preservation and conservation. Against this background, the present article explores theses as a potential viable source of knowledge on a minority ethnic community in Malaysia with a focus on Peranakan Chinese in Kelantan. Selected available theses pertaining to social aspects of the community that were written at bachelor degree levels at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Malaya (UM) from 1970s to 2010s are analysed using content analysis technique. Findings of the study suggests that theses can potentially serve as custodians to the untapped "treasure trove" of Malaysian heritage by preserving arcane information of the community at the grass-root level. Several theses written even go beyond "potentials" after they were polished and published as books, subsequently providing a significant contribution to building and defining what we now know about the community and its heritage.

Keywords: heritage custodians, heritage conservation enrichment, minority ethnic groups, Peranakan Chinese of Kelantan, theses

Title: Enhancing Federal Government Mandates to Ensure Continuity of Heritage Legacies
Author: Sarah Aziz and Siti Zuhaili Hasan
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 165–183, 2017
 
- Abstract  

The responsibility to ensure a legacy is continued, particularly for cultural and natural heritage, often rests with the government agencies, who are armed with the necessary legislative mandates to safeguard and protect them. Heritage in itself has a complex meaning, from the determination of the subject matter itself, the characterisation of its nature and value, to regulating the interactions that may have positive or negative impacts to it. It transcends guarding an object or subject, and involves the complex human-environment relations to the object or subject, encompassing that which is tangible and intangible. In addition, there are times when both cultural and natural heritage become interlinked resulting in it being categorised as mixed heritage, which requires a different set of approaches that complements the need for both cultural and natural heritage conservation. The question to be addressed revolves on what needs to be safeguarded and how can it be properly contextualised, taking into account the complex nature of heritage conservation and the interactions between those who know, those who have "inherited" and have cared for it, with those who are tasked to safeguard it. In addition, there is a need to look at the roles of those who act as custodians, by exploring what entails from the mandate given, towards enabling a collaborative arrangement, in order to ensure that existing mandates become complementary and mutually supportive. This article looks at the intricate relationship focusing on different Federal government mandate holders of cultural and natural heritage conservation, taking into account the federated system of government in place in Malaysia. It briefly discusses a segment of the current Federal government arrangement, and challenges as well the opportunities ahead in Malaysia.

Keywords: mandate, heritage law and regulations, federated system of government, heritage governance, heritage custodians

Title: Exploring the Narrative of Heritage Through the Eyes of the Law
Author: Lee Jing
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(Supp. 1) 185–207, 2017
 
- Abstract  

The responsibility to ensure a legacy is continued, particularly for cultural and natural heritage, often rests with the government agencies, who are armed with the necessary legislative mandates to safeguard and protect them. Heritage in itself has a complex meaning, from the determination of the subject matter itself, the characterisation of its nature and value, to regulating the interactions that may have positive or negative impacts to it. It transcends guarding an object or subject, and involves the complex human-environment relations to the object or subject, encompassing that which is tangible and intangible. In addition, there are times when both cultural and natural heritage become interlinked resulting in it being categorised as mixed heritage, which requires a different set of approaches that complements the need for both cultural and natural heritage conservation. The question to be addressed revolves on what needs to be safeguarded and how can it be properly contextualised, taking into account the complex nature of heritage conservation and the interactions between those who know, those who have "inherited" and have cared for it, with those who are tasked to safeguard it. In addition, there is a need to look at the roles of those who act as custodians, by exploring what entails from the mandate given, towards enabling a collaborative arrangement, in order to ensure that existing mandates become complementary and mutually supportive. This article looks at the intricate relationship focusing on different Federal government mandate holders of cultural and natural heritage conservation, taking into account the federated system of government in place in Malaysia. It briefly discusses a segment of the current Federal government arrangement, and challenges as well the opportunities ahead in Malaysia.

Keywords: mandate, heritage law and regulations, federated system of government, heritage governance, heritage custodians