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[Vol. 33, No. 2, 2015]



Published by
Universiti Sains Malaysia Press

Print ISSN: 0127-4082
Online ISSN: 2180-4273
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 33, No. 2, 2015
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, Genamics, Google Scholar, MyAIS, Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ)

Kajian Malaysia is listed in Scopus and ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.

News: Kajian Malaysia bags inaugural Ministry of Education CREAM Award
:: Aims & Scope

Kajian Malaysia is a refereed journal committed to the advancement of scholarly knowledge of Malaysia by encouraging discussion among the several branches of social sciences and humanities. The journal publishes articles, reviews and notes which by their content or approach, is of interest to a wide range of scholars. Although the journal would focus mainly on works in the field of Malaysian studies, articles with a theoretical content may also be published.

Kajian Malaysia is published by Universiti Sains Malaysia Press by an autonomous Editorial Board drawn from staff members of the University. The Board is assisted by a panel of distinguished scholars from local and foreign universities.

The journal pursues a bilingual publishing policy (Bahasa Malaysia and English). The Editorial Board reserves the right to decide which language an article will appear in, and will undertake to provide professionally acceptable translations.


:: Publication Ethics

Kajian Malaysia adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:


:: Current Issue

Volume 33, No. 2, 2015

Title: Patronage, Power and Prowess: Barisan Nasional’s Equilibrium Dominance in East Malaysia
Author: Faisal S. Hazis
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(2) 1–24, 2015
- Abstract  

Despite making significant inroads in Sabah and Sarawak during the 2013 elections, the Pakatan Rakyat (PR) party, with nine parliamentary seats, failed to weaken the Barisan Nasional (BN) party's control of these two East Malaysian states. The 47 seats won by the BN in Sabah and Sarawak accounted for 35% of the total number of seats (133) that it won nationally, indicating the importance of these East Malaysian states to the BN. Utilising a resource theory of single-party dominance, this chapter argues that the BN's electoral success in Sabah and Sarawak is dependent on the incumbent's use of patronage resources that are augmented by Prime Minister Najib Razak's seemingly limitless financial support. Equally important in explaining the BN's equilibrium dominance in East Malaysia is the role played by the Malay-Muslim bumiputera, who have emerged as the backbone of the ruling party. Fearing the loss of state power, the Malay-Muslim bumiputera consolidated behind the ruling party. The strong urban presence of the Chinese-dominated Democratic Action Party (DAP) further alienated Malay-Muslim bumiputera support for the PR. This chapter also explores the prowess of the BN's political machinery in gaining influence among the rural electorate scattered across the vast and rugged terrain of Borneo. Having made immense efforts to penetrate rural Sabah and Sarawak, the BN has established a strong presence there at the grassroots level that the opposition has yet to challenge. This chapter argues that unless the opposition can offer persuasive counter-narratives and party-building initiatives, the BN will continue to dominate politics in East Malaysia, ensuring its equilibrium dominance at the federal level.

Keywords: Sabah and Sarawak politics, dominance, electoral politics

Title: Development and Social Capital: A Case Study of Selected Malaysian Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
Author: Azeem Fazwan Ahmad Farouk & Azrina Husin
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(2) 25–42, 2015
- Abstract  

Social scientists continue to grasp for critical factors that foster or impede the development of social capital. This article examines some of these factors based on an investigation of developmental issues in rural Malaysia. Community activists and leaders, NGO staff, and key informants living and working in the designated locality indicated a complex and diverse range of social, cultural, political, and economic issues that have spurred Malaysian NGO involvement in alternative and participatory approaches to development. This situation is partly because the state-led developmental strategy adopted by the Malaysian regime since independence has impeded the development of social capital by curbing civic participation and participatory forms of social organising.

Keywords: non-governmental organizations (NGOs), social capital, developmentalism

Title: Pengaruh Latar Belakang Keluarga Terhadap Upah dan Kadar Pulangan Persekolahan Anak
The Influence of Family Background Towards Children's Wages and Returns to Schooling
Author: Rahmah Ismail, Siti Mariam Wan Chek & Ishak Yussof
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(2) 43–60, 2015
- Abstract  

Artikel ini bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh latar belakang keluarga terhadap kadar pulangan persekolahan anak mereka. Analisis ini adalah berdasarkan kepada data 1,192 anak yang bekerja dan masih tinggal bersama keluarga mereka. Data ini diperoleh melalui kerja lapangan pada tahun 2011 dengan menggunakan borang soal selidik ke atas 3,885 buah isi rumah di Semenanjung Malaysia. Kajian ini menggunakan model persekolahan Mincer (1974) dengan kadar upah bulanan anak yang bekerja sebagai pemboleh ubah bersandar, manakala tahap pendidikan ibu, tahap pendidikan bapa, pendapatan ibu bapa dan demografi anak bekerja seperti jantina, etnik dan taraf perkahwinan digunakan sebagai pemboleh ubah bebas. Dapatan kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa tahap persekolahan bapa dan pendapatan ibu bapa memberi kesan yang positif dan signifikan terhadap kadar upah anak mereka. Pekerja lelaki dan yang berkahwin menerima upah lebih tinggi masing-masing daripada pekerja wanita dan yang belum berkahwin, manakala pekerja berbangsa Melayu didapati menerima upah yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan bangsa lain. Selanjutnya, dapatan kajian ini membuktikan bahawa tahun persekolahan ibu mempengaruhi kadar pulangan persekolahan anak secara signifikan.

Kata kunci: kadar pulangan persekolahan, kadar upah, tahun persekolahan, pendapatan

This article aims at analysing the effect of family's background on returns to schooling among the children. The analysis is based on 1,192 working children who are still living with their parents. Data are obtained through a field survey in 2011 on 3,885 households using a set of questionnaire. The study employs Mincer's schooling model (1974) where children's monthly wages are used as dependent variable and the mother's/father's educational attainment, parent's income and working children's demographic factors such as gender, ethnicity and marital status are used as independent variables. Results of the study show that father's education level and parent's income provide a positive and significant affect on children's monthly wages. Male workers and married workers receive higher wages compared to female and unmarried workers respectively, while the Malay workers receive lower wages than the other races. Further, the results of the study demonstrate that mother's years of schooling significantly affect children's returns to schooling.

Keywords: returns to schooling, wage rate, years of schooling, income

Title: Prosedur Peminjaman dan Elemen Sosiobudaya dalam Terjemahan Rihlat Ibn Battutah
Borrowing and the Sociocultural Elements in the Translation of Rihlat Ibn Battutah
Author: Idris Mansor
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(2) 61–81, 2015
- Abstract  

Faktor sosiobudaya merupakan antara elemen penting yang kerapkali mempengaruhi proses penterjemahan. Pengaruh faktor ini seringkali dapat dilihat melalui pemilihan prosedur dan strategi tertentu yang digunakan oleh penterjemah. Kajian lepas yang dijalankan mendapati "peminjaman" merupakan antara prosedur utama yang digunakan oleh penterjemah dalam menterjemah beberapa elemen budaya yang terpilih dalam teks Rihlat Ibn Battutah kepada bahasa Melayu. Untuk itu, melalui kaedah "pemerhatian dan penerangan" dan disokong oleh pendekatan temu bual, kajian ini dijalankan bagi mengenal pasti pengaruh sosiobudaya yang terlibat dalam pemilihan prosedur peminjaman sebagai pendekatan utama dalam menterjemahkan elemen-elemen budaya tersebut. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa selain ketiadaan padanan satu lawan satu bagi data teks sumber yang dipilih, pengaruh faktor-faktor luaran juga terlibat dalam pemilihan peminjaman sebagai antara prosedur penting dalam terjemahan tersebut.

Kata kunci: terjemahan, peminjaman, sosiobudaya, Rihlat Ibn Battutah, bahasa Arab

Socio-cultural factors are the vital elements that normally affect a translation process. This factor's influence is often reflected in the selection of particular translation procedures and strategies. A previous study that has been carried out discovered that "borrowing" is one of the most dominant procedures used by the translators in the translation of certain cultural elements in Rihlat Ibn Battutah into Malay. As such, through "observation and explanation" and with the support of the interview approach, this study is carried out to identify the socio-cultural influences involved in the selection of the main borrowing procedures as the main approach in translating the cultural elements. The results of the study reveal that besides the lack of single equivalence in the target culture, some other external factors also contributed to the selection of "borrowing" as one of the most important procedures in the above translation.

Keywords: translation, borrowing, sociocultural, Rihlat Ibn Battutah, Arabic

Title: Pengukuhan Nilai Sepunya Melalui Strategi Pendidikan Awam: Kajian Kes Kilim Geoforest Park, Malaysia
Strengthening Shared Values Through Public Education: A Case Study of Kilim Geoforest Park, The Strategy of Malaysia
Author: Salsela Saidin, Norzaini Azman, Ibrahim Komoo, Sharina Abdul Halim, Natasha Stacey & Arhturo Izurieta
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(2) 83–115, 2015
- Abstract  

Geopark adalah satu pendekatan pembangunan inovatif yang diperkenalkan di peringkat global dan memberi tumpuan serius kepada konsep pembangunan secara lestari dan holistik merangkumi aspek pemuliharaan warisan, pembangunan komuniti, peningkatan sosioekonomi serta pendidikan awam. Usaha untuk mengintegrasi kesemua aspek ini memerlukan sistem governans bersepadu agar hubungan kerjasama yang baik antara semua komuniti berkepentingan boleh terbentuk ke arah pembangunan lestari. Implikasi yang jelas dalam membentuk sistem governans bersepadu adalah mencari nilai sepunya sebagai agen pengikat hubungan sosial governans di peringkat organisasi, institusi dan individu. Makalah ini bertujuan mengenal pasti komponen utama berasaskan nilai bersama yang perlu dibentuk untuk memperkukuh nilai sepunya bagi mencapai agenda pemuliharaan warisan dan kelestarian kehidupan. Kajian berbentuk eksploratori ini menggunakan teknik temu bual kumpulan berfokus melibatkan 21 orang responden mewakili 15 pihak berkepentingan di Kilim. Berdasarkan tiga siri perbincangan bagi setiap kumpulan berfokus, data telah dibuat transkripsi verbatim dan penganalisisan data telah melalui beberapa tahap sebelum tema dibentuk. Lima komponen telah dikembang berasaskan kepada analisis tema hasil maklum balas responden terhadap kepelbagaian nilai yang wujud di Kilim iaitu: (1) pemuliharaan warisan tabii dan budaya; (2) infrastruktur dan sistem sokongan; (3) pelancongan dan pembangunan sosioekonomi; (4) pemindahan dan penyebaran ilmu; dan (5) kelestarian ekosistem. Secara umum, nilai komitmen, kebersihan, keselamatan dan had tampungan pelancong mendapat perhatian khusus komuniti berkepentingan dalam memastikan kelestarian pembangunan ekopelancongan di Kilim. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian, satu kerangka pendidikan awam berasaskan lima komponen nilai sepunya telah dibangunkan dengan mengambil kira kepelbagaian fungsi dan tanggungjawab pihak berkepentingan di Kilim. Cadangan intervensi pendidikan awam ini memberikan perhatian kepada dua pendekatan iaitu pendekatan berasaskan pihak berkepentingan dan pendekatan berasaskan nilai sepunya. Penerapan nilai sepunya melalui pendidikan awam diharap dapat mendokong prinsip pembangunan sistem governans bersepadu di Langkawi Geopark bagi mencapai objektif pembangunan lestari.

kata kunci: Nilai sepunya, pemuliharaan warisan, governans, komuniti berkepentingan, pendidikan awam

Geopark is an innovative developmental approach that was introduced globally and it gives serious attention to the concept of a holistic development covering aspects of heritage conservation, community development, socio-economic improvement and public education. Efforts to integrate all the above aspects require a good integrated governance system that builds networking and common understanding between all the stakeholders. An integrated governance system implies that there is a need to find shared values as a binding agent of social relations at the organisational, institutional, and individual levels. This paper is based on an exploratory study that aims to identify the major components of shared values in order to strengthen the local community's common agenda for heritage conservation and sustainable livelihood. The study employed focus group discussions involving 21 respondents representing 15 stakeholders in Kilim Geoforest Park. The data collected were transcribed verbatim and went through various levels of data processing before arriving at the final themes. Five main components of shared values were developed which are: (1) natural and cultural heritage conservation; (2) infrastructure and support systems; (3) tourism and socio-economic development; (4) transfer and dissemination of knowledge; and (5) ecosystem sustainability. In general, the values of commitment, cleanliness, safety and carrying capacity received particular attention among the community stakeholders in their efforts to ensure a sustainable development of ecotourism in Kilim. Based on the findings, a framework for public education was developed grounded on the five shared values that takes into consideration the functions and responsibilities of each of the stakeholders. The educational intervention gives attention to two approaches which are stakeholder's and shared value approaches. It is hoped that the identified shared values can be incorporated into the development of an integrated governance system in Langkawi Geopark in order to help achieve the objectives of sustainable development.

Keywords: shared values, heritage conservation, public education, sustainable development, governance, communities' stakeholders

Volume 33, Supp. 1, 2015 (Special Issue)


Guest Editor: Saidatulakmal Mohd and Hooi Hooi Lean

Title: Intertemporal Changes of The Influence of Environmental Degradation on Migration: The Case Between Malaysia and Asia-Pacific Countries
Author: Wilson Ow Chee Seong, Baharom Abdul Hamid and Muzafar Shah Habibullah
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 1-14, 2015
- Abstract  

The purpose of this study is to determine the intertemporal changes that occurred in 1990 and 2000 in the link between migration and environmental degradation in the Asia Pacific region. The study used carbon dioxide emission index, gross domestic per capita income, consumer price index and distance among the countries to conduct a cross-sectional analysis to investigate this relationship. Two different points of time were regressed cross-sectionally and White standard was employed to remove traces of heterogeneity. Results clearly indicated that intertemporal effects between 1990 and 2000 were negligible. Overall, the study found that in the case of Malaysia and Asia Pacific countries, there had been no significant relationship between environmental degradation on emigration. However, other factors such as difference in the price level and inter-country distance influenced emigration significantly. Environment degradation, difference in price level and inter-country distance were found to be insignificant in influencing immigration.

Keywords: intertemporal changes, Malaysia, Asia Pacific countries, migration, environmental degradation

Title: Time Series Analysis of The Impact of Consumption and Energy Use on Environmental Degradation: Evidence from Malaysia
Author: R. Ratneswary V. Rasiah, Baharom Abdul Hamid, Wilson Ow Chee Seong and Muzafar Shah Habibullah
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 15-32, 2015
- Abstract  

The purpose of this study is to explore the long-run relationships and short-run dynamic interactions between environmental degradation (proxied by carbon dioxide, CO2 emissions) and the independent variables of consumption (proxied by income level or gross domestic product, GDP per capita) and energy use in Malaysia over the period 1971 to 2008, using time-series analysis. The multivariate cointegration methodology is applied in this study to establish the possible causal relations between the variables concerned. The cointegration test and the vector error correction model display the evidence of a positive long-run relationship between consumption and environmental degradation while energy use is negatively related to environmental degradation. The long-term elasticity coefficients of the exploratory variables on environmental degradation display relationships that are theoretically grounded. There is evidence that consumption and energy use have a dominant influence in forecasting environmental degradation variance through further innovation analysis using variance decompositions. The study concludes with an examination of policy implications of the findings.

Keywords: consumption, environmental degradation, CO2 emissions, energy, policy implications

Title: The Role of Institutions in Alleviating The Vulnerability of Farmers to Poverty in Malaysia: A Longitudinal Study
Author: Senadjki Abdelhak, Jamalludin Sulaiman, Saidatulakmal Mohd and Azlinda Azman
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 33-52, 2015
- Abstract  

Institutional support such as social and financial assistance play vital role in helping the poor deal with poverty. Nevertheless, institutions are often criticised for its delayed delivery and weak monitoring of programs. This study attempts to investigate the role of institutions in helping farmers deal with their vulnerabilities to poverty. A structured socio-economic questionnaire from a three-round panel survey undertaken at 6-month interval targeting the farmers in Kelantan and Terengganu, Malaysia is employed. The institution support is investigated in various areas that include effects on amount of production sold, head-count of cows, head-count of sheep and goats, head-count of hens and ducks, food storage and valuable things, savings and finally on farmers vulnerabilities. Results of the study indicate that institutions are inactive in providing assistance and support to farmers. Often, assistance is provided after an occurrence of a shock. Incidentally, the assistance provided does not reach all farmers, partly due to asymmetric information on the availability of the assistance or that farmers are not selected for the assistance. In most occasions, assistance is just not available to the farmers.

Keywords: vulnerability to poverty, longitudinal data, farmers, institutions, Malaysia

Title: Provident Fund for The Informal Sector: A Case Study of The Informal Sector Workers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Author: Saidatulakmal Mohd
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 53-67, 2015
- Abstract  

Workers in the informal sector are known not to have a formal social security retirement scheme to protect them from the loss of income at old age. One of the reasons for this is the difficulty to regulate a common scheme for both the informal and the formal sectors in terms of contributions and benefits. As a result, most informal sector workers depend on informal schemes such as family support, personal savings and loans after their retirement which leaves them vulnerable to poverty. However, through the Employees Provident Fund (EPF) 1Malaysia Retirement Scheme, workers in the informal sector in Malaysia can now save for the future. This paper investigates the acceptance of 400 informal sector workers in Kuala Lumpur towards this scheme; covering three main kinds of workers i.e. service workers, shop and market sales workers; craft and related trade workers; and those in elementary occupations. Acceptance is measured under two situations: (1) perception on the role of old age protection and provident fund; and (2) willingness to contribute to the fund. A variety of contribution values ranging from a low RM10 to a high RM70 together with their expected returns were presented to the respondents. A logit model is employed to estimate the informal sectors workers willingness to contribute to the EPF. The mean value on the perception of old age program estimated by the study is above average. The study found that amount of contribution and savings behaviour of respondents statistically influenced their willingness to contribute in the EPF.

Keywords: provident fund, informal sector, acceptance to provident fund, logit model

Title: Is Gold A Good Hedge Against Inflation? Empirical Evidence in Malaysia
Author: Mohd Fahmi Ghazali, Hooi Hooi Lean, Zakaria Bahari
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 69-84, 2015
- Abstract  

This paper studies the role of gold quoted in domestic currency as an inflation hedge in Malaysia from July 2001 to November 2011. Using the Malaysian monthly domestic gold and consumer price index (CPI), we examine the relationship between gold return and inflation in Malaysia via correlation coefficients and linear regression model. This paper finds no significant relationship between gold return and inflation, gold return and expected inflation and gold return with unexpected inflation, which led to the conclusion that domestic gold is not a good hedge against inflation in Malaysia. It is also not an excellent store of value over a relatively short period of time as it is unable to retain its sustainable purchasing power.

Keywords: gold, inflation, hedge, Malaysia

Title: Malaysian Stock Price and Macroeconomic Variables: ARDL Bounds Test
Author: Ricky Chee Jiun Chia and Shiok Ye Lim
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 85-103, 2015
- Abstract  

This study examines the response of the Malaysian stock market on selected macroeconomic variables, namely industrial production, inflation, money supply (M1), interest rate and exchange rate over the period 1980:Q1 to 2011:Q3. By using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test, this study documented the presence of a long-run relationship between share prices and economic activity. The long-run coefficients suggest that Malaysian share prices are influenced positively by money supply and interest rates, and negatively by inflation. The results from the error correction mechanism indicate that real returns are Granger caused by real money growth and real interest rates. When the exchange rate is included in the estimation, significant relationship has been observed and this implies that exchange rate fluctuations can cause movement in stock prices. This study reveals that the exchange rate is a proper determinant that has explanatory power over stock returns. From the policy perspective, the results suggest that, monetary policies aimed at stabilizing inflation can impact the stock market positively. Since the movement of stock market is highly elastic to inflation, the relationship needs to be taken into account in developing policy for the benefit of the Malaysian economy.

Keywords: stock market, macroeconomic variables, autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test

Title: Intellectual Capital Efficiency and Its Determinants
Author: Qian Long Kweh, Yee Chuann Chan and Irene Wei Kiong Ting
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 105-124, 2015
- Abstract  

This study applies a two-stage approach to examine intellectual capital efficiency and its determinants. In the first stage, we evaluate the intellectual capital efficiency of 25 Malaysian software companies by using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. Our findings show that the sample companies have to first improve their technical efficiency, and subsequently scale efficiency. We also provide some information on how much and in which types of intellectual capital an inefficient software company needs to improve. In the second stage, we run ordinary least squares and Tobit regression analyses to examine determinants of intellectual capital efficiency. Sales growth appears to have a significantly positive influence on intellectual capital efficiency. This study may provide some information for software managers to improve their efficiency in intellectual capital management.

Keywords: intellectual capital, data envelopment analysis, efficiency

Title: Preferences on Investing in Malaysian Stocks and Futures Markets
Author: Hooi Hooi Lean
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 125-140, 2015
- Abstract  

This paper investigates the preference of spot and futures markets in Malaysia for risk averters and risk seekers. The stochastic dominance approach is employed to perform the empirical analysis. It is observed that spot is preferred to futures at the downside risk whereas futures is preferred to spot at the upside profits for the entire period as well as all sub-periods. Spot dominates futures for risk averters while futures dominate spot for risk seekers. The preference of spot and futures markets for both risk averters and risk seekers are robust to crisis. In addition, the results support efficiency of both markets. In addition, several positive measures imposed by the government play a big role in stabilising the economy and sustain financial markets.

Keywords: stochastic dominance, futures, Malaysia, market efficiency

Title: The Influence of Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control on Intention to Return to Work: A Case of SOCSO’s Insured Employees
Author: Tan Fee Yean, Johanim Johari and Annis Fadilla Mohd Sukery
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 141-154, 2015
- Abstract  

Intention to return to work is based on employees' perception of the likelihood or the probability of going back to work after a prolonged illness caused by work-related injuries or other illnesses. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study proposes that employees' attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control will influence their intention to return to work. Data were gathered through a questionnaire administered to 160 SOCSO's insured persons, located all over Malaysia. Using the partial least squares (PLS) analysis method, we found that attitude and subjective norms have positively influenced intention to return to work among respondents. Perceived behavioural control however, has a non-significant impact on respondents' intention to return to work. The study offers plausible explanations for the results and discusses the theoretical and practical ramifications of the results.

Keywords: intention to return to work, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control

Title: Personal Attributes, Family Influences, Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurship Inclination Among University Students
Author: Mazlina Mustapha and Maitilee Selvaraju
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 155-172, 2015
- Abstract  

This paper investigates the factors associated with entrepreneurial inclination among undergraduate students in Malaysian universities. Among others, the influences of personal attributes, family and peer, and entrepreneurship education on the students' inclination towards entrepreneurship are examined. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to accounting students at three public universities in Klang Valley. About 178 questionnaires were completed and were found to be usable for the purpose of the study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and t-tests were employed to analyse the data. Generally, the results of the study indicate that the respondents have a positive inclination towards entrepreneurship. The hierarchical regression results show that personal characteristics, family influence, entrepreneurial education have positive and significant influence on the students' intention to be entrepreneurs when the variables are added into the equation. However, gender is not an important factor in influencing the students to choose entrepreneurship as their future career pathway.

Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneurship education, role of university, family influence, hierarchical regression

Title: The Role of Concern for The Environment and Perceived Consumer Effectiveness on Investors’ Willingness to Invest in Environmentally-Friendly Firms
Author: Boey Huey Ming, Gerald Goh Guan Gan and Suganthi Ramasamy
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 173-190, 2015
- Abstract  

With a growing awareness on the need to provide better care for the environment, there is a greater need to understand the factors that facilitate environmentally-sustainable behaviour among the populace. Various researchers have studied factors influencing investors' willingness to invest in the past. This study however covers a segment of finance research, specifically behavioural finance as it examines investors' perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE). Specifically, this study examines the role of investor behaviour on corporate environmental strategies, which is relatively an underexplored field of study. This study contributes to the theme of sustainable development, more precisely, sustainable finance. The study of sustainable finance has become the attention of investors around the world and this study aims to analyse whether this sector of investment (green companies) will interest investors. It is proposed that consumers' concern towards the environment and perceived consumer effectiveness are significant predictors of investors' willingness to invest in the shares of environmentally-friendly firms in Malaysia. An understanding of the role of concern for the environment and perceived consumer effectiveness on investors' willingness to invest in environmentally-friendly firms will be useful to the government and NGOs in the formulation of policies that would encourage investment in firms that are sensitive towards the needs of the environment.

Keywords: investors' willingness to invest, perceived consumer effectiveness, environmental concern

Title: Green Products Pricing and Malaysian Consumers’ Willingness to Pay
Author: Jeen Wei Ong, Gerald Guan Gan Goh, Choon Yih Goh, Marianne Shing Mei Too and Lee Pheng Goh
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(Supp. 1) 191-210, 2015
- Abstract  

This study aims to examine the price that consumers are willing to pay for green products relative to their non-green substitute and the actual price of the products in the market. While the price factor of green products has been investigated in previous studies, the focus has not been on the price that consumers are willing to pay for green products in comparison to non-green substitutes and actual price of the products in the market. In addition, the effects of demographic factors on the price that consumers are willing to pay for green products are also examined here. The study examined three categories of green products i.e. shampoo, light bulb and air-conditioners. The price that the respondents are willing to pay is obtained through a questionnaire. The results show that respondents are willing to pay significantly higher prices for green products relative to the non-green substitutes but the prices are significantly lower than the actual prices in the market across all the three categories of products. Furthermore, only ethnicity and income are found to influence the price consumers are willing to pay for green shampoo. The findings suggest that respondents are willing to pay premium prices for green products but are unlikely to purchase the green products due to the significant difference between the prices they are willing to pay for green products and the actual prices of these products in the market.

Keywords: green products, demographic factors, green product pricing