.: Journal Menu
     Journal Home
     Editorial Board
     Current Issue
     Past Issues
     Forthcoming Issue
     Submission Guidelines
     Subscription Form
     Contact Us
  
  .: Related Links
     Universiti Sains Malaysia
     Universiti Sains Malaysia    Press
     ScholarOne™ Manuscripts
     Sistem Maklumat Jurnal


View content online
[Vol. 31, No. 2, 2013]

 

Published by
Universiti Sains Malaysia Press

Print ISSN: 0127-4082
Online ISSN: 2180-4273
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 31, No.2, 2013
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, Genamics, Google Scholar, MyAIS, Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ)

Kajian Malaysia is listed in Scopus and ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.
 
:: Aims & Scope
 

Kajian Malaysia is a refereed journal committed to the advancement of scholarly knowledge of Malaysia by encouraging discussion among the several branches of social sciences and humanities. The journal publishes articles, reviews and notes which by their content or approach, is of interest to a wide range of scholars. Although the journal would focus mainly on works in the field of Malaysian studies, articles with a theoretical content may also be published.

Kajian Malaysia is published by Universiti Sains Malaysia Press by an autonomous Editorial Board drawn from staff members of the University. The Board is assisted by a panel of distinguished scholars from local and foreign universities.

The journal pursues a bilingual publishing policy (Bahasa Malaysia and English). The Editorial Board reserves the right to decide which language an article will appear in, and will undertake to provide professionally acceptable translations.

 

:: Current Issue

Volume 31, No. 2, 2013
 

Title: Legal Provisions and Restrictions on The Propagation of Non-Islamic Religions among Muslims in Malaysia
Author: Zuliza Mohd Kusrin, Zaini Nasohah, Mohd al-Adib Samuri and Mat Noor Mat Zain
Source: Kajian Malaysia 31(2) 1-18, 2013
 
- Abstract  

Article 11 of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia states that every individual has the right to profess, practice and preach his religion or belief. However, Article 11(4) of the Federal Constitution also states that the propagation of non-Islamic religions among Muslims is forbidden. This article aims to discuss both the justifications and the legal restrictions – that is, the legal provisions – that restrict and control the propagation of non-Islamic religions among Muslims in Malaysia. This discussion identifies three justifications for the prohibition of the propagation of non-Muslim religions among Muslims in Malaysia. The first justification relates to the background and history of the special status and position of Islam in Malaya; the second relates to the key role of Malay Rulers in preserving the sanctity of the Islamic religion from the pre-independence period to the present day; and the third justification relates to the nature of Islamic teachings and the maxim that apostasy is a crime. Legal provisions that control the propagation of non-Islamic religions among Muslims are found at both federal and state levels. However, the problem of legal enforcement and, in particular, the jurisdictional limitations of the Syariah Courts over non-Muslims in Malaysia result in a lack of implementation of these legal provisions.

Keywords: religion, Muslim, Islam, propagation, Syariah Court

Title: Metaphors for Malaysia's Economic Transformation Programme
Author: Kumaran Rajandran
Source: Kajian Malaysia 31(2) 19-35, 2013
 
- Abstract  

This article explores the Malaysian Prime Minister's choice of metaphors to conceptualise Malaysia's Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) by studying a sample of the Prime Minister's texts about the ETP. These texts include the Prime Minister's Foreword in the ETP Report and his periodic Progress Updates released between 2010 and 2011. A qualitative close reading, using critical metaphor analysis, reveals that the role of metaphor in these texts is to implicitly evaluate the ETP positively. The two major conceptual metaphors identified here are ETP IS A JOURNEY and ETP IS A VEHICLE. Such conceptual metaphors naturalise a binary and dependent relationship between the government as expert and citizens as non-experts in economic matters. Such rhetoric thus helps to justify the tradition of government intervention in the economy. The other conceptual metaphors identified are ETP IS A PLANT and UP IS GOOD, both of which posit that increasing economic and social advantages result from the ETP. All these conceptual metaphors enhance the government's claim to economic experience and leadership by legitimising the ETP as an effective policy in transforming Malaysia into a developed country. These conceptual metaphors might be part of a larger strategy to portray the government positively among citizens, as having sustainable economic development policies could provide a crucial electoral advantage to the government in the upcoming general elections.

Keywords: Malaysia, Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), speech, critical metaphor analysis, conceptual metaphor, metaphor

Title: The Process and Effect of Demographic Transition in Penang, Malaysia
Author: Usman Haji Yaakob and Nik Norliati Fitri Md Nor
Source: Kajian Malaysia 31(2) 37–64, 2013
 
- Abstract  

This article describes the demographic transition in Penang, Malaysia based on the demographic transition theory, which explains the decline of birth and death rates in European countries during the 18th century. It has been noted that the birth and death rates in Penang decreased by more than 62% between 1950 and 2009, although the standard of living increased. The decline in birth and death rates, including infant mortality, and the improvement in the standard of living may be associated with rapid urbanisation, industrialisation and modernisation. The decline in birth and death rates is associated with the opportunities for women to become highly educated and participate in the labour force, particularly in the industrial sector. This has resulted in delayed first marriages and an increase in the proportion of unmarried women who are age 30 or older. These trends have clearly affected the fertility rate in Penang, which was below 2.1 and 1.8 children per couple in 2001 and 2009, respectively. As a developed state, Penang currently has an aging population with 10.2% of its residents being older than 60. This article concludes that the problem of an aging population cannot be avoided and will characterise Penang in the coming years.

Keywords: demographic transition, fertility, mortality, marriage, urbanisation, industrialisation, infant mortality

Title: Komuniti dan Pengurusan Persekitaran: Beberapa Pengalaman Malaysia, Bangladesh, Zambia dan Vietnam
Community and Management of Environment: Experiences From Malaysia, Bangladesh, Zambia and Vietnam
Author: Teuku Afrizal and Abdul Rahman Embong
Source: Kajian Malaysia 31(2) 65–86, 2013
 
- Abstract  

Salah satu cabaran besar dalam kehidupan masyarakat moden khususnya masyarakat bandar ialah bagaimana mengurus persekitaran terutamanya pengurusan sisa pepejal dengan cekap dan berkesan, dan bagaimana melibatkan pelbagai "stakeholder" seperti pihak berkuasa tempatan (PBT), pertubuhan bukan kerajaan [non-governmental organization (NGO)] dan komuniti tempatan dalam usaha tersebut. Komuniti tempatan sebagai salah satu "stakeholder" atau kelompok berkepentingan utama perlu digerakkan dalam usaha mengurus kawasan persekitaran mereka sendiri. Hal ini kerana rasa kesepunyaan bersama yang mereka miliki akan mendorong mereka menjadi lebih komited dalam memperbaiki persekitaran dan menjaga keceriaan sehingga wujud suasana yang sihat dan berdaya huni. Artikel ini menganalisis pengalaman pengurusan sisa pepejal kawasan kediaman urban di empat buah negara membangun iaitu Malaysia, Bangladesh, Zambia dan Vietnam, dan menunjukkan bahawa komuniti tempatan boleh memainkan peranan yang penting dalam mengurus sisa pepejal sekiranya terdapat ejen perubahan yang boleh memainkan peranan menggerakkan anggota-anggotanya, meningkatkan kesedaran dan komitmen serta mengatur apa yang patut dibuat. Aspek-aspek yang diteliti dalam artikel ini termasuk asal mula pelaksanaan program penglibatan komuniti, penglibatan pihak yang berkepentingan dalam pengurusan, cara pengurusan dan mekanisme pelaksanaan, skop penglibatan, sumber pembiayaan serta pelaksanaan skim pengutipan primer dan pengutipan sekunder. Namun, artikel ini menghujahkan bahawa walau apapun peranan yang dimainkan oleh komuniti tempatan, komuniti tersebut menghadapi batasan atau kekangan tersendiri kerana saiznya yang kecil, sumber-sumber yang terhad serta ketiadaan ataupun kekurangan kepakaran. Justeru pemerintah selaku pemegang amanah ke atas kesejahteraan masyarakat masih perlu memberi perhatian yang mendalam dan sokongan padu agar projek yang dilaksanakan di peringkat komuniti dapat dilakukan dengan berjaya bagi meningkatkan kesejahteraan hidup mereka.

Kata kunci: penglibatan komuniti, pengurusan sisa pepejal, pihak berkuasa tempatan, negara membangun, kesejahteraan

One of the major challenges of modern society namely those in urban centres is the question of how to put in place an efficient and effective environmental management system especially of its solid wastes, and how to involve the participation of various stakeholders such as local authorities, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local communities. The local community as a principal stakeholder should be mobilised so that they become actors in managing their environment. This is so because their sense of common belonging would motivate them to be more committed to ensure their environment is kept clean, healthy and liveable. This article analyses the experiences in solid waste management of several urban residential communities in four developing countries – Malaysia, Bangladesh, Zambia and Vietnam – and shows that the local community can play an effective role in solid waste management provided there are change agents who can help mobilise the community and its members, raise their consciousness and commitment, and put in place what needs to be done. The article examines such aspects as how community participation began, involvement of various stakeholders in management, method and implementation mechanism, scope of participation, funding sources, and primary as well as secondary waste collection. It however maintains that while community participation is important, there are constraints and limitations to such participation due to the community's small size, limited resources and the lack of expertise. The government as the stakeholder responsible in ensuring the society's wellbeing thus must continue to give serious attention and solid support to the community's participation in such projects so that they could successfully be implemented in order to improve the wellbeing of the community.

Keywords: community participation, solid waste management, local authority, developing countries, wellbeing

Title: Ke Arah Penilaian, Perkembangan dan Pemupukan Bahasa Melayu Supranasional
Towards the Assessment, Expansion and Enhancement of Malay as a Supranational Language
Author: Jyh Wee Sew
Source: Kajian Malaysia 31(2) 87–104, 2013
 
- Abstract  

Bahasa Melayu memerlukan rombakan struktural pada tahap penilaian, pentadbiran dan pendidikan informal sebagai langkah dalam pemeliharaan bahasa dan budaya Melayu untuk menjadi bahasa asing yang mantap. Artikel ini membincangkan beberapa syor utama sebagai agenda bahasa baru. Pertama, bahasa Melayu asing yang bertauliah dalam pasaran antarabangsa memerlukan satu sistem penilaian yang selaras seperti Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL) atau International English Language Testing System (IELTS). Kedua, program bahasa Melayu asing akan berswadaya menerusi langkah pemupukan yang teratur. Lantaran itu, pakar bahasa Melayu mempunyai peranan penting sebagai duta pendidikan bahasa asing di persidangan antarabangsa. Pada masa sekarang tiada badan penggerak yang terlibat dalam urusan penajaan pakar bahasa untuk menyalurkan maklumat akademik yang menjurus ke arah pendidikan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa asing. Contohnya, di negara Jepun terdapat Yayasan Jepun yang memberikan sokongan padu dalam perkembangan dan pemantapan pendidikan bahasa dan budaya Jepun. Ketiga, sumbangan komuniti penutur asal berkemampuan mewujudkan momentum positif dalam program bahasa Melayu asing di pasaran antarabangsa. Komuniti tempatan menjadi alternatif terbaik bagi melengkapi pedagogi bahasa yang berpusatkan pengajar. Kaedah dalam pendidikan bahasa asing yang berpusatkan guru bahasa telah dikenal pasti sebagai faktor utama di sebalik kelemahan pemerolehan bahasa Melayu asing dalam kajian mutakhir. Faktor akademik seperti penilaian bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa asing, peranan ahli profesional sebagai "mubaligh bahasa Melayu" dan peluang berbahasa secara optimum bersama komuniti Melayu tempatan dapat menghasilkan suatu program bahasa Melayu asing yang ampuh. Justeru, sebuah jentera penggerak seperti Yayasan Bahasa Melayu akan membawa pengaruh besar dalam pengurusan pendidikan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa asing, baik dari segi penilaian, mahupun dalam penyebaran dan pengayaan. Seterusnya, Yayasan Bahasa Melayu akan memberikan fasa baru dalam penyebaran bahasa Melayu sebagai lingua franca serantau seperti dahulu kala di rantau Asia Tenggara.

Kata kunci: Yayasan Bahasa Melayu, bahasa Melayu asing, penilaian bahasa Melayu, duta bahasa Melayu, pasaran antarabangsa bahasa Melayu

This article suggests that an organised and properly managed Malay foreign language programme contributes significantly to Malay language and culture preservation. To this end, select academic domains are highlighted as areas of improvement towards a sound Malay foreign language programme. Firstly, a Malay foreign language requires proper assessment instrument, not least because a recognised foreign language programme in the current business market requires a standardised foreign language assessment. Both Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL) and International English Language Testing System (IELTS) are prime examples of standard language testing instruments which are well-subscribed across the world. Secondly, a Malay foreign language programme benefits from a series of focused deliberation by expert Malay language ambassadors at major international conferences. Currently, no organisation looks into the sponsorship of Malay experts to disseminate and promote academic development as well as cultural information towards Malay language education at the international level. As a comparison, Japanese Foundation is an astute state board promoting Japanese through various kinds of sponsorship. Thirdly, the local speech community playing a part in learning enrichment adds vibrancy to the delivery of a foreign language. Local Malay speech communities make an excellent alternative in complementing teacher-centred pedagogy, which is identified as a main reason for low achievement in the acquisition of Malay language in current research. Arguably, the combination of proper academic evaluation, professional deliberation and local educational exposure in language learning and enhancement generates a vital force for establishing a sound Malay foreign language in a competitive international foreign language market. Consequently, the creation of an executive board such as a Malay Language Foundation is relevant to launch the academic support in Malay language education and transform Malay foreign language into a sought-after academic option in a global language market thus reviving the lingua franca status that Malay once held in the Southeast Asian region.

Keywords: Malay Language Foundation, Malay foreign language, Malay assessment, Malay language ambassador, Malay language in international market

 
Book Review

Title: Internationalizing Higher Education in Malaysia – Understanding, Practices and Challenges, by Tham Siew Yean (ed.) Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), 2013, 139 pp.
  Morshidi Sirat

Title: E.E.C. Thuraisingham: A Malaysian Patriot by Joseph M. Fernando, Zulkanain Abdul Rahman and Abdullah Zakaria Ghazali. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 2013, 90 pp.
  Viswanathan Selvaratnam

Title: Tearing Apart the Land: Islam and Legitimacy in Southern Thailand, by Duncan McCargo. Singapore: NIAS/National University of Singapore Press, 2009, 235 pp.
  Abu Talib Ahmad