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[Vol. 32, No. 1, 2014]



Published by
Universiti Sains Malaysia Press

Print ISSN: 0127-4082
Online ISSN: 2180-4273
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 32, No. 1, 2014
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, Genamics, Google Scholar, MyAIS, Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ)

Kajian Malaysia is listed in Scopus and ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.
:: Aims & Scope

Kajian Malaysia is a refereed journal committed to the advancement of scholarly knowledge of Malaysia by encouraging discussion among the several branches of social sciences and humanities. The journal publishes articles, reviews and notes which by their content or approach, is of interest to a wide range of scholars. Although the journal would focus mainly on works in the field of Malaysian studies, articles with a theoretical content may also be published.

Kajian Malaysia is published by Universiti Sains Malaysia Press by an autonomous Editorial Board drawn from staff members of the University. The Board is assisted by a panel of distinguished scholars from local and foreign universities.

The journal pursues a bilingual publishing policy (Bahasa Malaysia and English). The Editorial Board reserves the right to decide which language an article will appear in, and will undertake to provide professionally acceptable translations.


:: Current Issue

Volume 32, No. 1, 2014

Title: Local Historians and the Historiography of Malay Nationalism 1945-57: The British, United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) and The Malay Left
Author: Azmi Arifin
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(1) 1-35, 2014
- Abstract  

This article discusses the historiography of Malay nationalism based on the historical writings and interpretations of local historians. By utilising authoritative secondary sources and official British documents, this study attempts to trace the various schools of opinion on the political struggle that occurred in Malaya between 1945 and 1957. This study shows that the local historiography of Malay nationalism to date has largely focused on the history of political struggle within the United Malays National Organization (UMNO). Thus, the role played by other nationalist movements has not received proper attention in historical writings, as such movements have been considered unimportant. Several recent studies emphasise the role played by the leftist movement, but they are insufficient and tend to associate or equate leftist movements with communism. This study attempts to explain that there were other Malay nationalist movements, in addition to the right wing, leftist and communist movements, who fought for independence from the British. This article suggests that the aggressive response attributed to the many Malay political movements and the declaration of emergency in 1948 by the British were caused by threats not only from the rightist and leftist nationalists and communists but also from religious movements that demanded the independence of Malaya and the establishment of an Islamic state. In essence, their ability to mobilise support from the Malays and non-Malays was viewed as a threat to the political survival of the British-UMNO alliance.

Keywords: British colonialism, decolonisation, Malay nationalism, independence, Malayan Union, UMNO, Malay left, Islamic left

Title: Changing Ethnic Diversity in Peninsular Malaysia
Author: Hans-Dieter Evers
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(1) 37-53, 2014
- Abstract  

This paper reviews several approaches for measuring and evaluating ethnic diversity. Based on Simpson's diversity index, a metric commonly used in biodiversity research, an "ethnic diversity index" (EDI) is developed that describes the degree of variety of ethnic groups living together on a common territory. The EDI values of the states of Peninsular Malaysia and Kuala Lumpur reveal a general decrease in ethnic diversity between 1970 and 2000. This change is attributed to migration, government policy and urban planning. Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety" and Ostrom's recommendation for the governance of biodiversity are used to address problems associated with the governance of complex and highly diverse social systems.

Keywords: cohesion, ethnic diversity, ethnic conflict, ethnoscape, Malaysia, pluralism, urban development

Title: Sisters In Islam’s Quest for The Reinterpretation of The Qur’an and Hadith: An Analysis of Their Views on Equality, Women Judges, and Polygamy
Author: Abdussalam Muhammad Shukri and Musa Yusuf Owoyemi
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(1) 55-80, 2014
- Abstract  

This article examines the reinterpretation project of an Islamic feminist movement in Malaysia, Sisters In Islam (SIS), by analysing some of its book projects on the issues of equality, women judges in the Shari'ah Courts, and Islam and polygamy. The article examines the attempts by SIS to reinterpret some Qur'anic verses and the Hadith and to reform Islamic family laws to suit its view of the way that contemporary Muslim society should relate to its women with respect to equality between Muslim men and women, appointing female Muslims as Shari'ah judges, and eradicating polygamy in Muslim societies. Utilising analytical and critical methods, this research analyses some books written by SIS members on these issues, identifying some plausible points and pointing out misreadings because SIS members did not consider holistic perspectives and situations of contemporary times. Finally, while acknowledging the usefulness of this effort in certain areas, this article rejects the extremism and impracticality in some aspects of works by SIS and calls for a rethinking of the areas in which this movement has erred in its mission to reinterpret verses of the Qur'an and the Hadith and to reform Islamic family law.

Keywords: Sisters In Islam (SIS), reinterpretation, Islam, equality, judges, polygamy, Qur'an, Hadith, Islamic law, Muslim, feminist

Title: Perkahwinan dan Perceraian Masyarakat Melayu Terengganu 1950an-1970an
Marriage and Divorce among The Malays in Terengganu between the 1950s-1970s
Author: Roslelawati Abdullah dan Nordin Hussin
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(1) 81-117, 2014
- Abstract  

Isu ketidakstabilan dalam institusi perkahwinan orang Melayu menjadi satu isu yang hangat dibincangkan khususnya sekitar 1950an hingga 1970an. Kadar perceraian yang tinggi dalam kalangan masyarakat Melayu pada masa itu telah menarik perhatian pelbagai pihak. Namun, kajian mengenai perkahwinan dan perceraian masih sangat kurang dilakukan oleh para sejarawan. Untuk mengisi jurang ini, kajian ini diketengahkan dengan memberi tumpuan khusus kepada masyarakat Melayu di negeri Terengganu sekitar tahun 1950an hingga 1970an. Tujuan kajian ialah untuk menganalisa permasalahan yang timbul dalam institusi perkahwinan masyarakat Melayu Terengganu serta mengenal pasti faktor-faktor yang menjadi punca permasalahan tersebut. Turut dibincangkan ialah usaha-usaha yang telah dilakukan oleh Pejabat Agama Negeri Terengganu dalam menangani permasalahan ini. Kajian ini telah menggunakan kaedah penyelidikan arkib dan perpustakaan untuk mendapatkan data. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa perkahwinan dan perceraian orang Melayu di Terengganu dipengaruhi oleh dua faktor utama iaitu faktor ekonomi dan sosial.

Kata kunci: orang Melayu, perceraian, perkahwinan, sejarah sosial, sejarah Terengganu

Instability in the Malay institution of marriage was a hot issue discussed during the 1950s to 1970s. The high divorce rates among the Malay community at that time attracted the attention of various quarters. However, there was little research conducted on marriage and divorce by local historians. To fill this gap, this study is presented by focusing on the Malay community in the state of Terengganu during the 1950s to 1970s. The study aims to analyse the problems that arise in the marriage institution among the Terengganu Malay community and to identify the factors that had caused these problems. In addition, this study also discusses the efforts taken by the Terengganu State Islamic Religious Affairs Department in addressing the problems. This study utilises archival and library research to obtain data. The findings indicate that marriage and divorce among the Malays in Terengganu were affected by two main factors, namely the economic and social factor.

Keywords: Malays, divorce, marriage, social history, history of Terengganu

Title: Jati Diri Kaum dan Perpaduan Negara: Kajian Kes Cina Peranakan Kelantan di Malaysia
Ethnic Identity and National Unity: A Case Study of Kelantan Peranakan Chinese in Malaysia
Author: Mohd Shahrul Imran Lim Abdullah
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(1) 119-148, 2014
- Abstract  

Kajian pembinaan jati diri (identiti) sesuatu komuniti semakin penting kepada negara berbilang bangsa seperti Malaysia. Artikel ini memperlihatkan cara bagaimana komuniti Cina peranakan Kelantan mengidentifikasikan diri mereka serta kesannya ke atas isu perpaduan di Malaysia dan di Kelantan khususnya. Kepelbagaian budaya di Malaysia sebahagian besarnya berkait dengan pelbagai budaya serantau di negara ini, yang terus wujud, dan dalam beberapa kes, membangun dan maju. Budaya yang berbeza ini bertembung dan berinteraksi dalam konteks kesatuan negara dan budaya Malaysia. Dari sudut yang sama, terdapat orang yang berasal luar Malaysia, terutama orang Cina, membawa bersama budaya dan adat istiadat tanah asal mereka dan diintegrasikan budaya ini secara berperingkat dalam negara yang mereka sedang menetap ini. Artikel ini membincangkan cara orang Cina memilih kerakyatan Malaysia dan menjadi anggota masyarakat Malaysia yang pelbagai budaya. Banyak kajian tentang pembinaan jati diri orang Cina telah dilakukan sejak pengajian tentang pembinaan jati diri menjadi aliran dunia akademik sains sosial di Malaysia sekitar 1980-an. Sehubungan dengan itu, artikel ini bertujuan untuk memahami tentang pembinaan jati diri komuniti Cina peranakan di Kelantan daripada perspektif sosiobudaya. Artikel ini telah membawa kesedaran tentang kewujudan komuniti peranakan yang berbeza di Malaysia, di mana komuniti ini bukan satu entiti sosial yang homogen. Secara keseluruhannya, artikel ini telah memberi satu sumbangan yang signifikan terhadap konsep peranakan, yakni satu konsep sosial yang dihasilkan oleh negara di Kepulauan Melayu ke peringkat antarabangsa.

Kata kunci: jati diri Cina, komuniti Cina peranakan Kelantan, pembinaan bangsa, kehidupan sosial budaya, entiti sosial homogen

Studies on the formation of ethnic identity of a particular community are gaining in importance in plural societies such as Malaysia. This article shows how the Kelantan Chinese peranakan Community identify themselves and its impact on the issue of national unity in Malaysia and especially in Kelantan. Multiculturalism in Malaysia is largely concerned with various regional cultures in the country, which continue to exist, and in some cases, to further develop and progress. These cultures meet and interact in the context of a united country and Malaysian culture. In the same vein, there are people who originated from outside Malaysia, especially the Chinese, who have brought with them the cultures and mores of their lands of origin and, to varying degrees, integrated them into the country they now call home. This article discusses how the Chinese opted for Malaysian citizenship and to be a member of this multicultural society. Many studies on Malaysian Chinese identity have been conducted ever since studies on identity have become a trend in the academic world in the social sciences in Malaysia during the 1980s. In this regard, this article aims to understand the formation of the Kelantan Chinese peranakan community's identity from a sociocultural perspective. This article has brought awareness to the existence of different peranakan communities in Malaysia, hence it is not a homogeneous social entity. This article has provided a significant contribution towards the concept of peranakan, a social concept which was locally produced in the Malay archipelago, to an international level.

Keywords: Chinese identity, The Kelantan Chinese peranakan, nation building, social culture life and homogeneous social entity

Book Review

Title: Biografi Tun Abdul Razak: Negarawan dan Patriot oleh Nik Anuar Nik Mahmud, Muhammad Haji Salleh dan Abd. Ghapa Harun. Bangi, Selangor: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia dan Yayasan Tun Razak, 2011, 401 pp.
  Abu Talib Ahmad

Title: Bahasa Cina Bahasa Melayu: Kebolehterjemahan Budaya by Goh Sang Seong. Pulau Pinang: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2012, ix + 226 pp.
  Jyh Wee Sew

Volume 32, Supp. 1, 2014

Title: Corpora in Language Research in Malaysia
Author: Hajar Abdul Rahim
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(Supp. 1) 1-16, 2014
- Abstract  

Since the creation of the first generation of computer-readable corpora, pioneered by the Brown Corpus in the 1970s, corpora have been extensively used in virtually all branches of linguistics. This article discusses corpus-based research and its development in the Malaysian linguistic scenario over the last three decades in considering its status and prospect as a research method. The discussion shows that research in Malay and English in the country has benefited from the use of corpora. In the last decade especially, there has been a surge of interest in corpora as a research tool in Malay and English, evidenced by the rise in research and publications on Malay linguistic description, English learner language, and Malaysian English as a local variety. Despite the encouraging development, there is still much to be gained from the use of corpora and corpus analysis in the linguistic description of Malay dialects, variation and pedagogy, English language pedagogy, Malaysian English and other language varieties including endangered and indigenous languages in the country.

Keywords: language corpora, Malay language, Malaysian English, corpus linguistics, corpora and pedagogy

Title: Corpus Research in Malaysia: A Bibliographic Analysis
Author: Siti Aeisha Joharry and Hajar Abdul Rahim
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(Supp. 1) 17-43, 2014
- Abstract  

The literature on corpus-related research in Malaysia suggests that studies that have been done include a spectrum of issues on the Malay language as well as those on the use of the English language. However, to date, there has been no attempt to analyse the development of corpus research in Malaysia. To fill this gap and to better understand the state of corpus research in Malaysia, a bibliographic analysis of corpus-related studies in Malaysia was carried out. In an attempt to use published research as data for the bibliographic analysis, the Google Scholar search system was used to source for corpus-related studies in Malaysia. The bibliographic analysis, based on published studies between 1996 and 2012, suggests that there is an upward trend in the use of the corpus method in language research in Malaysia. And a thematic analysis of the studies shows that corpus research in Malaysia, thus far, have focused on five main areas of research : (1) English language use in Malaysia, (2) Malaysian English learner language, (3) Malaysian textbook content, (4) Malay language description and lexicography, and (5) corpora development. Based on research issues and number of studies, corpus research in English and in Malay differs to some extent in terms of research concerns. As well, studies on English outnumber those on Malay despite the fact that corpus research on the latter began much earlier.

Keywords: corpus research in Malaysia, bibliographic analysis, Malaysian English, Malay, corpora development

Title: Argument Structure in Learner Writing: A Corpus-based Analysis Using Argument Mapping
Author: Simon Philip Botley @ Faizal Hakim
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(Supp. 1) 45-77, 2014
- Abstract  

In this paper, corpus-based linguistics (CBL) is applied to the analysis of argument structure in Malaysian written learner English. Botley and Metom (2011) have demonstrated the value of using a corpus of student essays, a "learner corpus", to explore the interlanguage (Selinker, 1972) of learners in the Malaysian university setting. This paper goes further by focusing on the critical thinking and argumentation abilities of students writing in a foreign language. The data consists of a sample of argumentative essays from the CALES learner corpus (Corpus Archive of Leaner English in Sabah/Sarawak). The essays were all written by Malay L1 students at a major Malaysian public university between 2005 and 2011. Because the essays were argumentative in terms of task type, it is reasonable to expect that the data should yield rich information on the argumentation strategies used by the students in writing their essays. In order to study these argumentation strategies, this paper makes use of a graphical representation scheme for arguments, known as "argument mapping" (Horn, 1999; ter Berg and van Gelder, 2007). Argument maps are diagrams consisting of square boxes linked with arrows, which can be used to represent various aspects of argumentation such as conclusions, premises, claims, contentions, reasons and objections. Using the argument mapping technique, this study seeks empirical data on how Malaysian undergraduates may structure their written arguments. This is currently a bottom-up exploratory study with few pre-set hypotheses. Despite this, it is hoped that the findings will lead to useful insights into how the writers of the essays manage, or do not manage, to construct clear, well-reasoned arguments. The findings should also be very helpful to educators and researchers in areas such as English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and critical thinking.

Keywords: learner corpus, CALES, argument mapping, claim, objection, premise

Title: The Impact of Data-Driven Learning Instruction on Malaysian Law Undergraduates’ Colligational Competence
Author: Kamariah binti Yunus and Su’ad Awab
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(Supp. 1) 79-109, 2014
- Abstract  

Data-Driven Learning (DDL) approach is a pedagogic application of corpus linguistics in classroom. This paper aims at investigating the impact of DDL instruction (an integration of both paper-based (scaffolded) concordance materials or "soft" DDL and "hard" DDL (independent online searching) on the production of colligations of prepositions among law undergraduates at a university in Malaysia. In this experimental study design, data were collected from the pretest and posttest conducted before and after a seven week-course. The 40 respondents (third semester law undergraduates) involved in this study were divided equally. Twenty students (5 males and 15 females) were placed in the experimental group and treated with the module (concordance printouts of the colligational patterns) and the DDL approach—an inductive or a process approach. Meanwhile, the other 20 students (6 males and 14 females) were placed in the control group, and they were treated with the non-DDL module and taught deductively following the traditional teaching approach—a product approach. The data collected were then analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test (inferential statistics). The statistical analysis showed that the students in the DDL group performed significantly better than the students in the comparison group in the gap-filling task (U = 120.5, Z = –2.209, p = 0.027, significant at p < 0.05) and in the error- identification and correction task (U = 124.5, Z = –2.070, p = 0.038, significant at p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in the single-sentence writing (construction) task (U = 135.5, Z = –1.770, p = 0.077). This study recommends explicit teaching of colligations of prepositions via DDL approach (an integration of paper-based and online searching), as opposed to the non-DDL approach to law students.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, Data-Driven Learning (DDL) approach, concordancers, colligations of prepositions, paper-based ("soft") and "hard" DDL

Title: “…so it is very important…”: Evaluative Adjectives in Engineering Lectures
Author: Noor Mala Ibrahim and Ummul Khair Ahmad
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(Supp. 1) 111-129, 2014
- Abstract  

Evaluation has been shown to have a prominent role in academic discourse and has been investigated in both written (Hyland, 1999) and spoken discourse (Swales and Burke, 2003; Crawford-Camiciottoli, 2004). In spoken discourse, particularly in academic lectures, evaluation is often used by lecturers to express their assessment of the content, and to orient listeners towards the preferred interpretation. This paper reports how lecturers from two different institutions (in Malaysia and in the UK) use adjectives of evaluation. Five engineering lectures with corresponding topic from each institution were analysed using Wordsmith Tools 5.0 (Scott, 2008), and extracted concordance lines containing adjectives of evaluation were manually examined to verify their evaluative function. Findings have revealed that lecturers from both institutions showed great awareness on the needs of their students in processing the lecture content, suggesting the fulfillment of their pedagogical role. However, the Malaysian lecturers used a limited variety of evaluative adjectives, with important being the most frequent. In contrast, their British counterparts employed a wider range of linguistic items to evaluate their discourse and at the same time, help students consider how to interpret the content of the lecture.

Keywords: evaluative adjectives, engineering lecture corpus, Malaysian academic lectures

Title: Meaning in Malay- English Dictionaries:  An Application of Frame Semantics and the Framenet
Author: Intan Safinaz Zainudin, Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin and Imran Ho Abdullah
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(Supp. 1) 131-149, 2014
- Abstract  

A literature review of bilingual dictionary research in Malaysia shows that most research has focused on the problems of equivalents recorded in bilingual dictionaries. What is lacking is proper linguistic analysis of the discrimination of meaning for the source language entry and the findings of the target language equivalents. This paper attempts to fill this research gap by investigating the problems that arise in the discrimination of meanings of two Malay-English dictionaries, and the English equivalents. The analysis adopts the methods of frame semantics in describing the Malay verb memberi, assessing the different senses of meaning through the frames that are available. The theoretical framework of Frame Semantics has successfully helped the writer to reorganise the meaning of the Malay transitive verb memberi (translation in English "give") from the different frames evoked by the entry. Meanwhile, the information of the lexical units (LU) provided by the frames, for example the LUs from the frame of GIVING in the FrameNet database have contributed to a list of English equivalents that can be used in the Malay-English dictionary entry. This frame-based analysis relies on the 5 million words Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka- Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (DBP-UKM) Malay corpus while all the English equivalents are sourced from FrameNet and English dictionaries.

Keywords: bilingual dictionary, discrimination of meanings, Frame Semantics, FrameNet, corpus based analysis

Title: The Development and Application of an Online Malay Language Corpus-Based Lexical Database
Author: Lay Wah Lee and Hui Min Low
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(Supp. 1) 151-166, 2014
- Abstract  

The Online Malay Language Corpus-based Lexical Database for Primary Schools discussed in this paper is a long-term research project by the School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Based on a corpus of Malay language textbooks used in primary schools, the project aims to develop a lexical database of Malay words commonly encountered by elementary school children in Malaysia. Available online, the database has an interactive interface that allows users to search in real-time primary linguistic features such as word frequency, word length, phoneme length, number and type of syllables, as well as word category. The database has proven to be a useful resource for both researchers and practitioners who use it to identify linguistically and culturally appropriate sets of word stimuli for material development, language assessment, language teaching, and language remediation. These applications facilitate and promote evidence-based teaching and research practices pertaining to reading acquisition in the Malay language. The system has undergone initial validation and is continuously being revised and expanded to improve on its usability, readability, and accuracy.

Keywords: reading, online lexical database, Malay language, teaching, assessment

Title: Exploring the Malaysian English Newspaper Corpus for Lexicographic Evidence
Author: Tan Siew Imm
Source: Kajian Malaysia 32(Supp. 1) 167-185, 2014
- Abstract  

This paper describes the analysis of the Malaysian English Newspaper Corpus for lexicographic evidence, and demonstrates the use of corpus data and information obtained from secondary sources in creating dictionary entries for 457 Malaysian English loanwords, compound blends, loan translations and lexical creations. Consisting primarily of nouns, these features include food names, terms for festivals and religious practices, names of social and recreational activities, and honorific titles and terms of respect. These features are produced and understood by the community, and are generally considered acceptable for use across a wide range of intranational domains. The dictionary entries created through the project described in this article will require revisions as more corpora, representing diverse registers of Malaysian English, become available. New lexical features will also need to be codified. The influences of languages other than Malay and Chinese should also be examined. Although core English words should be central to a Malaysian English dictionary, how some of these words have been adapted in the local sociolinguistic context will also have to be explored. These dictionary entries should be relevant to the educational and communicational needs of the society while maintaining an endonormative standard. It is argued that the codification of the vocabulary of Malaysian English can be an effective way to signal the legitimacy and the coming of age of this variety.

Keywords: Malaysian English, Malaysian English Newspaper Corpus, lexicography, endonormative standard