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[Vol. 33, No. 1, 2015]



Published by
Universiti Sains Malaysia Press

Print ISSN: 0127-4082
Online ISSN: 2180-4273
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 33, No. 1, 2015
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, Genamics, Google Scholar, MyAIS, Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ)

Kajian Malaysia is listed in Scopus and ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.
:: Aims & Scope

Kajian Malaysia is a refereed journal committed to the advancement of scholarly knowledge of Malaysia by encouraging discussion among the several branches of social sciences and humanities. The journal publishes articles, reviews and notes which by their content or approach, is of interest to a wide range of scholars. Although the journal would focus mainly on works in the field of Malaysian studies, articles with a theoretical content may also be published.

Kajian Malaysia is published by Universiti Sains Malaysia Press by an autonomous Editorial Board drawn from staff members of the University. The Board is assisted by a panel of distinguished scholars from local and foreign universities.

The journal pursues a bilingual publishing policy (Bahasa Malaysia and English). The Editorial Board reserves the right to decide which language an article will appear in, and will undertake to provide professionally acceptable translations.


:: Publication Ethics

Kajian Malaysia adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:


:: Current Issue

Volume 33, No. 1, 2015

Title: Political Expediencies and the Process of Identity Construction: The Quest for Indian Identity in Malaysia
Author: Anbalakan Kailasam
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(1) 1-18, 2015
- Abstract  

One way of gauging identity construction in a community is by studying how the community organises itself into associations, the causes these associations fight for and the stands they take on issues pertaining to their communities' interests. The English-educated Indian elite in Malaysia began making efforts in the last quarter of the 19th century to organise themselves into socioeconomic and quasipolitical associations. However, no cohesive ethnic identity was visible even among this English-educated middle class until the mid-forties. The Indians at large remained as fragmented as ever. Ironically, they did not even have a truly national organisation with which they could identify themselves as an ethnic community. This situation began to change with the formation of the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC) in August 1946. The MIC was the first full-fledged political party of the Indian community in Malaysia, and it was formed to defend Indian interests. True to this objective, the MIC played a crucial role in defending the rights of the Indian community during the period soon after the Second World War. With that, the MIC inadvertently paved the way for the transition of Indian identity from being an immigrant community to being rightful citizens of Malaysia. An analysis of the MIC's role in and stance on various issues that affected the community from the time of its inception through the midfifties is imperative for understanding identity construction among Indians in Malaysia. An attempt is made here to study the various phases that the MIC went through during its political struggle as the representative of the Indian community and its influence on the transition of Indian identity from an immigrant community to citizens.

Keywords: Indians, MIC, identity construction, dual citizenship, Indian association

Title: Assessing Malay Proficiency at the Tertiary Level: Criteria Features in Learner Language
Author: Jyh Wee Sew
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(1) 19-41, 2015
- Abstract  

Despite the variations in verbal interaction, the standard of evaluation for summative assessment is somewhat straightforward in foreign language education. The consensus on what is foreign language proficiency is typically based on first language (L1) proficiency. The introduction of criteria features indicative of learner proficiency based on second language learner English corpora, in a recent study from Cambridge, suggests that differentiating learner grammar from standard grammar may be an agenda in language evaluation. Criteria features are useful to ascertain if a foreign language learner has attained an expected proficiency unique to the learning environment and if the examinable learning outcome is distinguishable as an A or a B or a C, etc. in the standard gradation of language assessment. This discussion highlights certain positive features identifiable as basic characteristics of learner proficiency in Malay. Differing from current standard L1 grammars that are derived from contemporary discourses of mass media, the Malay criteria features presented in the discussion are based on learner language. The Malay criteria discussed may initiate a prototype towards the schemata befitting the assessment of Malay proficiency unique to beginners in foreign language education.

Keywords: applied linguistics, blogging Malay, criteria features, e-learning, language learning, Malay assessment, Malay as foreign language, small sampling, tertiary Malay

Title: Creative Pedagogies and Video Making: A Study on Malaysian Adolescents' Participation in Environmental Issues
Author: Ngu Ik Ying and Shanthi Balraj Baboo
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(1) 43-66, 2015
- Abstract  

This study aims to use a creative visual approach to examine how creativity can be boosted using video making and new media technologies. It is hypothesised that adolescent participation may be optimised through exposure to creative pedagogical techniques that encourage greater freedom of expression. Examples of these techniques include dialogues, small group discussions and a redefinition of roles between researcher and participant. When offered greater autonomy, participants may be more inclined to express their views rather than giving researchers favourable answers. The findings suggested that the individual's response to environmental issues was dependent on his or her knowledge of the issue and familiarity with the given medium. When both of these factors were high, the response was relatively higher. Three themes have been identified from the data collection: (1) motivational outcomes, (2) cognitive impacts and (3) construction of a new identity as active media consumers.

Keywords: creative pedagogies, video-making, new media, adolescent

Title: Perlaksanaan Customary Tenure Enactment (CTE) Zaman Kolonial dan Kesannya ke Atas Pentadbiran Tanah Adat di Negeri Sembilan (1921–1940)
Author: Azwan Syah Idris, Nordin Hussin and Ishak Yussof
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(1) 67-92, 2015
- Abstract  

Kajian ini mengupas perlaksanaan Customary Tenure Enactment (CTE) di Negeri Sembilan yang mengamalkan Adat Perpatih. Penjajahan British ke Negeri Sembilan telah memberi perubahan seiring dengan keadaan ekonomi ketika itu dan antara tumpuan utama mereka ialah hal ehwal pengurusan tanah. Tanah adat merupakan aset penting bagi masyarakat adat yang menjadi kesinambungan kekuatan komuniti mereka. Menyedari hal ini, tahun 1909 menjadi permulaan kepada kewujudan CTE khusus bagi tanah adat yang digubal oleh British berdasarkan undang-undang tanah Adat Perpatih. CTE digubal bagi memastikan tanah adat tidak boleh dipindah milik kepada individu lain terutama bangsa asing. Setiap tanah adat akan ditanda customary land di dalam gerannya bagi menunjukkan tanah itu menjadi hak milik tetap dan tidak boleh dijual. Namun, jika customary land itu dibatalkan, tanah ini bebas ditukar milik. Hal ini menimbulkan persoalan iaitu sejauh manakah undang-undang ini berjaya melindungi tanah adat dan kefahaman masyarakat adat terhadap CTE. Objektif kajian ini bagi meneliti perubahan dan kesan CTE kepada masyarakat adat. Hasil kajian mendapati telah berlaku perubahan dan kesan kepada tanah adat. Memasuki tahun 1930-an hingga awal 1940-an pentadbiran British, perubahan mulai kelihatan kepada pemikiran masyarakat adat dengan terdapatnya kes-kes membatalkan tanda customary land bagi memudahkan urusan menjual tanah adat yang jelas tidak tepat berdasarkan matlamat asal CTE. Kewujudan CTE bagi melindungi tanah adat telah bertukar menjadi satu kemudahan bagi masyarakat adat menjual tanah mereka. Kelemahan yang terdapat dalam CTE tidak mampu melindungi tanah adat dan perubahan ekonomi telah mendatangkan kesan kepada pemikiran masyarakatnya.

Kata kunci: masyarakat Adat Perpatih, tanah adat, kerajaan kolonial British, Customary Tenure Enactment (CTE)

This study attempts to unravel the implementation of Customary Tenure Enactment (CTE) in Negeri Sembilan which is still practicing the Adat Perpatih. The colonisation of Negeri Sembilan by the British has resulted in changes to the practices, in line with the economic situation at the time and their focus on land management affairs. Customary land was an important asset for the adat of the community as a continuation of their economic strength. Realising this, the year of 1909 was the beginning of the establishment of CTE especially for those customary lands that had been enacted by the British based on the land law of Adat Perpatih. CTE was enacted to ensure customary lands were not transferrable to other individuals particularly the foreigners. In this respect, each customary land would be marked as customary land in the land grant to indicate that the land has been permanently held and cannot be sold. Notwithstanding this however, if the customary land tag was to be annulled, that piece of land would then be transferrable. This has raised concerns on the effectiveness of the law to protect the customary lands as well as on the understanding of the adat community of the CTE. The objective of this study is to examine changes and effect of CTE on adat community. The findings of the study showed that there have been changes that had impacted the sustainability of customary lands. Under the British administration from the early 1930's until the early 1940's, changes had been seen to occur in the mindset of the adat community with the occurrences of a number of customary lands annulments to enable the selling of customary lands. This has definitely run contrary to the original intention of CTE. The establishment of CTE to protect customary lands has now become a "facility" for the adat community to sell their land. The weaknesses of CTE have not been able to protect land and adat and the economic changes have also impacted the community's mindsets.

Keywords: adat communities, customary land, British colonial government, Customary Tenure Enactment (CTE)

Title: Hubungan Kepemimpinan Etika, Komitmen Afektif, Penglibatan Kerja dan Sokongan Organisasi
Author: Tang Keow Ngang and Tengku Ahmad Badrul Raja Hussin
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(1) 93-119, 2015
- Abstract  

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh kepemimpinan etika ketua jabatan terhadap komitmen afektif dan penglibatan kerja pensyarah serta mengenal pasti peranan sokongan organisasi sebagai mediator dalam hubungan antara variabel. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah kuantitatif iaitu tinjauan dan dilaksanakan secara keratan rentas dengan menggunakan soal selidik sebagai instrumen. Seramai 306 orang pensyarah dari lima buah politeknik Malaysia berdasarkan pecahan zon secara geografi dipilih sebagai responden kajian dengan kaedah persampelan pelbagai peringkat. Data diperoleh melalui soal selidik dwibahasa yang dibahagi kepada lima bahagian iaitu demografi responden, kepemimpinan etika, sokongan organisasi, komitmen afektif dan penglibatan kerja. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan kepemimpinan etika merupakan peramal yang signifikan terhadap sokongan organisasi, komitmen afektif dan penglibatan kerja. Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan tahap kepemimpinan etika, sokongan organisasi dan penglibatan kerja berada pada tahap sederhana manakala komitmen afektif adalah pada tahap tinggi. Ujian kesan pengantaraan mendapati sokongan organisasi berfungsi sebagai mediator yang kuat antara kepemimpinan etika dengan penglibatan kerja manakala sokongan organisasi berfungsi sebagai separa mediator dalam hubungan antara kepemimpinan etika dengan komitmen afektif. Hasil kajian ini berjaya mengetengahkan satu model bagi menghubungkaitkan kepemimpinan etika dan sokongan organisasi untuk meningkatkan komitmen afektif dan penglibatan kerja.

Kata kunci: kepemimpinan etika, sokongan organisasi, komitmen afektif, penglibatan kerja

The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of ethical leadership of heads of department on the lecturers' affective commitment and job involvement as well as to examine the role of organisational support as the mediator between the variables. This study utilised quantitative survey design and was implemented by cross-sectional method using questionnaire as an instrument. A total of 306 lecturers were selected from five polytechnics in Malaysia based on their geographical location by applying multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected using a set of bilingual questionnaire which comprised five sections namely demographic characteristics, ethical leadership, organisational support, affective commitment and job involvement. Findings indicated that ethical leadership was a significant predictor of organisational support, affective commitment and job involvement. Results also revealed that ethical leadership, organisational support and job involvement were at moderate levels while affective commitment was at high level. Mediation effect test revealed that organisational support served as a strong mediator in the relationship between ethical leadership with job involvement while organisational support partially mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and affective commitment. The study proposed a model of ethical leadership and organisational support to enhance affective commitment and job involvement.

Keywords: ethical leadership, organisational support, affective commitment, job involvement

Title: Pembangunan Kerangka Kerja bagi Kejayaan Kerjaya Ahli Akademik Universiti Penyelidikan di Malaysia
Author: Al-Mansor Abu Said, Roziah Mohd Rasdi, Bahaman Abu Samah and Abu Daud Silong
Source: Kajian Malaysia 33(1) 121-159, 2015
- Abstract  

Tujuan artikel ini adalah untuk membangunkan satu rangka kerja teori untuk menerangkan kejayaan kerjaya ahli akademik di universiti penyelidikan. Teori yang menjadi asas kepada kajian ini adalah model lanjutan Social Career Cognitive Theory, SCCT (Lent dan Brown, 2006). Kajian ini mendapati empat faktor yang mempunyai pengaruh berpotensi pada kejayaan kerjaya ahli akademik termasuk modal insan, personaliti, sokongan organisasi dan kesesuaian individu-persekitaran. Kajian ini juga mencadangkan bahawa perilaku proaktif berperanan sebagai pemboleh ubah pencelah. Di samping itu, artikel ini dapat memberi sumbangan terhadap teori dan praktis dalam pembangunan sumber manusia. Ia juga akan membantu penyelidik dan pengamal pembangunan sumber manusia dalam memahami isu-isu dan strategi pembangunan kerjaya terhadap organisasi dan perkembangan kerjaya ahli akademik di institusi pengajian tinggi.

Kata kunci: kerjaya, kejayaan kerjaya, universiti penyelidikan, akademik, Malaysia

The purpose of this article is to develop a theoretical framework for explaining academics' career success at research universities. Theories underpinning this study are based on an advanced model of Social Career Cognitive Theory, SCCT (Lent and Brown, 2006). This study found four factors that have potential influences on academics' career success which are human capital, personality, perceived organisational support and person environment-fit. In addition, this study proposed the role of proactive behaviour as a mediating variable. This article contributes toward improving theory and practice in human resource development. It will also help researchers and practitioners in understanding human resources development issues, career development strategy and development of academic careers in higher education institutions.

Keywords: career, career success, research university, academics, Malaysia

Book Review

Title: Museums, History and Culture in Malaysia, Abu Talib Ahmad. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press, 2014, viii + 328 pp
  Kevin Blackburn

Title: Fostering Language Teaching Efficiency Through Cognitive Linguistics, eds. Sabine De Knop, Frank Boers and Antoon De Rycker. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, 2010, xiii + 388 pp.
  Jyh Wee Sew