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[Vol. 35, No. 2, 2017]



Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Print ISSN: 0127-4082
Online ISSN: 2180-4273
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 35, No. 2, 2017
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, MyCite, Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), JURN

Kajian Malaysia is listed in Scopus and ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.

News: Kajian Malaysia bags inaugural Ministry of Education CREAM Award
:: Aims & Scope

Kajian Malaysia is a refereed journal committed to the advancement of scholarly knowledge of Malaysia by encouraging discussion among the several branches of social sciences and humanities. The journal publishes articles, reviews and notes which by their content or approach, is of interest to a wide range of scholars. Although the journal would focus mainly on works in the field of Malaysian studies, articles with a theoretical content may also be published.

Kajian Malaysia is published by Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia by an autonomous Editorial Board drawn from staff members of the University. The Board is assisted by a panel of distinguished scholars from local and foreign universities.

The journal pursues a bilingual publishing policy (Bahasa Malaysia and English). The Editorial Board reserves the right to decide which language an article will appear in, and will undertake to provide professionally acceptable translations.


:: Publication Ethics

Kajian Malaysia adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:


:: Current Issue

Volume 35, No. 2, 2017

Title: State Islamic Orthodoxies and Islamic Education in Malaysia and Indonesia
Author: Azmil Tayeb
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(2) 1–20, 2017
- Abstract  

This paper compares state Islamic orthodoxy in Indonesia and Malaysia by using Islamic education curriculum for senior high schools as my case study. I argue that Malaysian Islamic Development Agency (Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia, JAKIM) in Malaysia has been more successful in exerting its orthodox values in the Islamic education curriculum than its counterpart Indonesian Council of Ulama (Majelis Ulama Indonesia, MUI) due to three factors: clear institutional objective; ideological cohesion among state institutions overseeing Islamic education; and patterns of Islamisation in the society that provide a conducive milieu for such orthodox ideals to thrive. In this paper I limit the scope of time and space to state Islamic orthodoxy in Indonesia and Malaysia from the late 1970s to present. I then choose three common topics found in Islamic education curriculum for senior high schools in Indonesia and Malaysia – pluralism/freedom of religion, marriage, and civic responsibility/governance – as examples of JAKIM's ideological dominance in Malaysia and the multifaceted nature found in Indonesian state Islamic orthodoxy.

Keywords: JAKIM, MUI, Islamic education, orthodoxy

Title: Making Creative Industries Policy: The Malaysian Case
Author: Thomas Barker & Lee Yuen Beng
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(2) 21–37, 2017
- Abstract  

With the launch of the Dasar Industri Kreatif Negara (DIKN) document in 2009, the creative industries have become a policy focus area for the Malaysian government in line with Wawasan 2020 (Vision 2020). By critically analysing the institutional background of the DIKN and creative industries policies implemented to date, this paper shows how the DIKN has been translated into subsequent policy. This paper argues that creative industries policy has largely narrowed to funding schemes and resulted in a proliferation of government agencies. Due in part to the legacy of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) and Multimedia Development Corporation (MDEC), "digital" has increasingly come to be synonymous with "creative". We argue that this raises questions as to how the creative industries are perceived and supported and ultimately the meaning of creativity in the Malaysian creative industries policy context.

Keywords: Malaysia, creative industries, policy, film

Title: Your Language My Culture (YLMC): Developing a Local-Culture ELT Matrix for Schools in Terengganu, Malaysia
Author: Zawiah Yahya, Noraini Ibrahim, Rashila Ramli, Noraini Md Yusof & Zarina Othman
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(2) 39–66, 2017
- Abstract  

This paper outlines details of a local-culture matrix that maps the cultural content of a supplementary, local-culture-based three-year reading programme in English for secondary schools in Terengganu, Malaysia. The reading programme, called "Your Language My Culture" (YLMC), is designed by a group of researchers from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) with the objective of upgrading both English proficiency and local culture awareness at the same time. Two broadly opposing views on the use of local culture in English Language Teaching (ELT) are presented: one that favours the use of "authentic" cultural norms of native speakers of English in a process of "cultural assimilation"; the other that favours localising materials for ELT textbooks adapted to the local environment of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners. The YLMC programme adopts the latter view on the conviction that the learners' familiarity with local content and context will better facilitate learning and interaction with English. In the design of the culture matrix for ELT, the YLMC team has also taken cognizance of the global trends in pedagogy and the specific context of Terengganu where the programme is implemented.

Keywords: YLMC, matrix, local culture, English, reading

Title: Singapore in Malaysia: An Examination of Argument Structures in a Malaysian History Textbook
Author: David Yoong, Kumaran Rajandran & Rubini Devi Suppiramaniam
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(2) 67–85, 2017
- Abstract  

The article explores how the Malaysian Form 3 history textbook portrays Singapore's merger and separation. The portrayal can influence the perception of Singapore among Malaysians. Singapore was part of Malaysia for about two years (1963–1965) and its brief union represents a crucial historical episode. The episode is analysed using Toulmin's argument structures. The analysis identifies the claims, grounds and warrants for the arguments, and it also examines the use of lexicogrammatical and intertextual features. Certain arguments articulate the benefits of the merger and it is endorsed by foreign and local leaders, and the general population. Subsequently, other arguments articulate the threats which Singapore posed and its separation is made to seem inevitable. The textbook portrays Singapore as an enthusiastic partner and later a distrusted partner of the Malaysian Federal Government. Its arguments validate the state-sanctioned version of history. The article also provides four proposals to improve history textbooks.

Keywords: Toulmin model, arguments, history, textbook

Title: Branding Higher Education: The Case of Malaysian Higher Education Promotion on the Internet
Author: Alexandra Samokhvalova
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(2) 87–104, 2017
- Abstract  

A booming middle class, new attractive study destinations and a resulting shift in student mobility trends have recently established a new dynamic in international higher education. To stay competitive, countries apply marketing strategies to promote and "sell" their higher education to international students-cumcustomers. With the growing use of the Internet to research study destinations, the role of online channels in higher education promotion is becoming increasingly important. The current study investigates the case of Malaysian higher education branding in cyberspace. By applying content analysis to the two major higher education online platforms, this study identifies the core brand values of Malaysian higher education and evaluates their coherence. The research findings demonstrate that both platforms combine nation and higher education branding efforts to create a harmonised image of the national higher education system. Additionally, several suggestions are made concerning the optimisation of the architecture and information presentation of the websites to enhance their attractiveness for users. Finally, the necessity of further investigation into higher education branding for the successful implementation of internationalisation policies in Malaysia is emphasised.

Keywords: Malaysia, higher education, nation branding, core brand values, online branding

Title: Socio-environmental Factors Impacting on Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Code-Switching in ESL Classrooms in a Rural District in Malaysia
Author: Tan Nam Siong & Low Hui Min
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(2) 105–125, 2017
- Abstract  

Code-switching is common in certain English as Second Language (ESL) classrooms in Malaysia. In this study, a survey method was used to account for the impacts of macro-level socio-environmental factors such as school type, school size and class size on ESL teachers' attitudes towards classroom codeswitching. The results showed that in general, teachers reported positive attitudes towards classroom code-switching in relation to teachers' persona, subject access, classroom management and interpersonal relationships. Correlation and regression analyses showed that teaching experience was a significant predictor of teachers' attitudes towards classroom code-switching in relation to teachers' persona; while the matching of teachers' and students' ethnicity was a significant predictor of teachers' attitudes towards classroom code-switching in relation to interpersonal relationships. The findings contributed the insights that different socio-environmental factors provided explanations for different aspects of teachers' attitudes towards classroom code-switching. The interplay of factors affecting teachers' attitudes on classroom code-switching is multidimensional and should only be interpreted by considering all possible factors involved.

Keywords: code-switching, ESL teachers, teachers' attitude, socio-environmental factors


Title: Cheah Boon Kheng (1939–2015) in Memoriam
Author: Abu Talib Ahmad
Source: Kajian Malaysia 35(2) 127–130, 2017

Book Review

Title: Islam Translated: Literature, Conversion and the Arabic Cosmopolis of South and Southeast Asia, by Ronit Ricci. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2011, 313 pp.
  Siti Nuraishah Ahmad

Title: Neoliberalism and Applied Linguistics, by David Block, John Gray and Marnie Holborow. Routledge, 2012, 168 pp.
  Hajar Abdul Rahim

Title: Radicals: Resistance and Protest in Colonial Malaya, by Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied. NIU Press, 2015, 228 pp.
  Mahani Musa