Volume 11(1), 2013
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity Of Lagenaria Siceraria Leaves
Neeraj Kant Sharma, Amit Kumar, Priyanka, Keshari Kishore Jha, Hemant Kumar Singh and Anil Kumar Shrivastava
The free radical scavenging potential of methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria leaves (MELS) was studied on in-vitro antioxidant models. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by determining the activity of hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging and DPPH assay. In all these studies, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The extract was also shown to have high phenolic content i.e. 99.09±0.10 μg/mg. These results clearly indicated that methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria leaves could be a potential source of natural antioxidant and effective against free radical mediated diseases.
Keywords: Antioxidant, In vitro, Lagenaria siceraria, Reactive oxygen species
Indonesian Herbals Reduce Cholesterol Levels In Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia Through Lipase Inhibition
Sari, I. P., Nurrochmad, A. N. and Setiawan, I. M.
The water and ethanolic extracts of Guazuma, Gynura, Muraya and Roselle were evaluated for their antihypercholesterolaemia and antilipase activities on high fat diet-induced rats. Ethanolic and water extracts were given on day 31-45. Total cholesterol and lipase activity in serum were measured. Guazuma water and ethanolic extracts, Gynura water extract, Muraya ethanolic extract as well as Roselle water and ethanolic extracts caused reduction in cholesterol levels of high fat diet-induced rats significantly (17-23%; P<0.05). The potency of Guazuma ethanolic extract and Roselle water extract were similar to that of orlistat. Gynura water extract, Muraya ethanolic extract and Roselle water extract reduced dietary fat absorption by inhibiting lipase activity.
Keywords: Guazuma, Gynura, Muraya, Roselle, Lipase activity
Hypoglycemic Effect of Nyctanthes Arbortristis Linn Extracts in Normal and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Mohammad Mizanur Rahman, Begum Rokeya, Mohammad Shahjahan, Tofail Ahmed, Sudhangshu Kumar Roy and Liaquat Ali
Purpose: Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn is widely used in Bangladesh and South Asia. A long history of traditional medicine was used for the treatment of various ailments of its every part. Present study examines the hypoglycemic effects of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn ripe seed and leaves extracts in a rat models. Methods: Aqueous and 2% ethanol extracts of seed and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis were used for the study at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg body wt/10 ml of water respectively. Male Long-Evans rats, bred at BIRDEM animal house and weighing between 180-200g were used in the study. Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic models of rats were produced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin using conventional methods. Experiments were done in normal, Type 1 and Type 2 model rats with a single feeding in different prandial states. Control rats received water and standard drugs glibenclamide and insulin were given parallaly to different groups of rats. Serum glucose was measured by glucose-oxidase methods. Results: The oral administration of the ripe seed extracts had significantly effect the blood glucose level in fasting condition (p<0.005) as well as when the extract fed simultaneously with glucose (p<0.001) and 30min before glucose load (p<0.05) in diabetic and normal model rats compared with control group respectively. The leaves extract also reduced blood glucose level significantly in Type 1 model rats (p<0.05) compared to control rats. Conclusion: The extracts of the plant of Nyctanthes arbortristis exhibited hypoglycemic effects which merits further exploration both chemically and biologically.
Keywords: Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn, Leaf, Ripe seed, Hypoglycemic
Percutaneous Absorption of Triacyglycerol (Tags), Tocols and Carotenoids: Comparison Studies of Crude and Refined Palm Oil
Prasanthi Sri, Senthil Adimoolam and Ahmad Mahmud
Studies were conducted to assess the percutaneous absorption of the triacyglycerol (TAGs), tocols and carotenoids present in crude and refined palm oil. In vitro experiment of using upright ‘Franz’ diffusion cells were employ to investigate the permeability of these compounds across full thickness human skin and into the receptor solution. Cetrimide, a cationic surfactant was chosen to be used as a solubilising agent in the receptor phase with an optimum concentration of 3.0 mg mL-1 and was able to provide sink conditions throughout the permeation.TAG, tocols and carotenoids all permeated human skin from crude palm oil (CPO), whereas only TAG permeated when refined palm oil (RPO) was used. Of the TAG, oleic acid-containing TAG, were preferentially absorbed despite palmitic acid being the most prevalent FA in TAG. Tocols in the form of α-T3 showed the highest permeation followed by γ-T3, α-T and the lowest permeation was observed for δ-T3.Carotenoids (α-carotene and β-carotene) also showed an appreciable amount of permeation from CPO.
Keywords: Franz cell, Tocol, Carotenoids, Cetrimide, Percutaneous
Enhanced Transdermal Drug Penetration of Curcumin Via Ethosomes
Boddupalli Bindu Madhavi, Kallem Siri Vennela, Prasad Masana and Bhavana Madipoju
Objective of present research work is to overcome the barriers of poor oral bioavailability through transdermal drug delivery. Among the available transdermal systems, ethosomes are the promising ones with increased penetration effect due to the combination of lipid bilayer and ethanol in its structure. Curcumin has poor oral bioavailability and can be given as transdermal ethosomes to enhance bioavailability along with local action of anti inflammation. Curcumin ethosomes were prepared and optimised for lipid and ethanol concentrations based on entrapment efficiency, vesicular size and drug penetration. Drug penetration capability of the ethosomes was compared with aqueous, ethanolic and liposomal solutions. The optimised ethosomes were compared for the cumulative drug penetration (74.2±0.236%) in to skin with aqueous (0.59±5.90%), ethanolic (62.31±2.63%), liposomal (59.3±0.44%) and ethosomal curcumin – β-cyclodextrin complex (78.01±0.22). It was found that the penetration was enhanced and maximum in ethosomes incorporated with curcumin – β-cyclodextrin complex because of combined effects of ethanol, lipid bilayer along with increased dissolution of curcumin with β-cyclodextrin complex. This formulation will be suitable to treat local skin inflammations with enhanced penetration via ethosomes incorporated with curcumin – β-cyclodextrin complex.
Keywords: Curcumin, Ethosomes, Transdermal drug delivery, Enhanced penetration
A Community Health Screening Conducted at Sungai Pinang Township, State of Penang, Malaysia
Chai Fung Kiew and Chee Ping Chong
Non communicable diseases are raising much concern in Malaysia owing to changing lifestyles parallel to economic development. This can be intervened by community health screening (CHS) which allows early detection, prevention and reduction of chronic diseases and its risk factors. A health screening had been conducted on April 2012 at Sungai Pinang Township, state of Penang, Malaysia. This study aimed to assess the obesity level, risk factors for chronic diseases and blood cholesterol level among the Malaysian public. A convenient sample of general public was recruited for screening tests which consisted of blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, visceral fat accumulation and blood cholesterol. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the difference between prevalence of obesity among subjects with different age groups and gender. Out of 76 recruited subjects, 23.7% had systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or greater and 7.9% had diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or greater. Approximately 51% of the subjects were obese (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2). Body fat percentage was high in 63.6% and 63.0% respectively of the male and female. High visceral fat accumulation (≥ 15) was found in 19.8% of the subjects. There were 3 newly discovered hypercholesterolemia cases (total cholesterol ≥ 5.2 mmol/L). Counseling have been given during the health screening to help the public to take necessary measures to reduce risk factors while preventing complication resulting from these chronic diseases. In conclusion, prevalence of obesity found to be high in the present screened population.
Keywords: Community health screening, Obesity, Body mass index, Body fat percentage, Visceral fat accumulation