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[Vol. 21, No. 1, 2016]


Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

Print ISSN: 1823-6499
Online ISSN: 2180-4222
Frequency: Biannually
Current Issue: Volume 21, No. 1, 2016
Abstracting/Indexing: EBSCO, MyAIS, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Scopus

Journal of Construction in Developing Countries is listed in ERA Ranked Journal List.

USM has extended content delivery format for its journals’ publication in print and PDF to include ePub, to address the growing need for more mobile accessibility.

Journal of Construction in Developing Countries bags Ministry of Education CREAM Award
:: Home

The Journal of Construction in Developing Countries (JCDC) is a scholarly peer-reviewed international publication, invaluable to those who are interested in the issues relevant to the built environment of developing countries. The bi-annual journal is published by Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia in cooperation with the working Commission 107 (W107) of the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building Construction (CIB). It is building upon the work of the former Journal of Housing Building and Planning by expanding its scope. From the 11th volume onwards, the Journal of Housing Building and Planning is renamed the Journal of Construction in Developing Countries. It is a multi-disciplinary effort involving scientists, professionals and practitioners and it will specifically provide a unifying basis bringing together architects, landscape designers, engineers, project managers, construction managers, quantity surveyors, town planners, sociologists, property managers, facilities managers and designers, among others.

All contents of the journal are freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is all in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.


:: Aims and Scope

The Journal of Construction in Developing Countries seeks to provide a central vehicle for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge on issues relevant to the built environment of developing countries. The journal provides a wide range of original research an application papers on current developments and advances in the built environment as well as the economic, social, cultural and technological contexts of developing countries. It also publishes detailed case studies, as well as short communications and discussions. Topics covered include, but are not restricted to planning, urban economics, rural and regional development, housing, management and resource issues, sustiainability, knowledge and technology transfer, construction procurement, facilities management, information an communication technologies, strategies and policy issues, design issues, conservation and environmental issues.


:: Publication Ethics

Journal of Construction in Developing Countries adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) standards on publications ethics. For further details please visit:


:: Current Issue

Volume 21, No. 1, 2016

Title: Understanding Management Roles and Organisational Behaviours in Planning and Scheduling Based on Construction Projects in Oman
Author: Hammad Al Nasseri and Radhlinah Aulin
- Abstract  

There are many challenges associated with the construction processes of planning and scheduling. These challenges are relevant to all project parties or stakeholders and therefore management roles or organisational behaviours of those parties have to be properly considered and assessed. With this in mind, this study is aimed at assessing practitioners' perspectives on the current significance and applicability of a set of criteria or factors concerned with management roles and organisational behaviours of the different parties based on construction projects in Oman. The study has adopted a quantitative approach in which a questionnaire-based survey was chosen and conducted to gather responses from construction projects in Oman. A total of 67 valid responses were analysed based on the rankings and means of the respondents' perspectives on the significance and applicability of the identified factors to current practice. The overall findings indicated that all investigated factors should be critically considered as equally important to the development process of planning and scheduling. Nevertheless, the findings implied that a management priority should be given to the most important factors significantly affecting project planning and scheduling. The study provides some useful recommendations on how to improve project management roles and organisational behaviours in planning and scheduling on the part of key project parties.

Keywords: Project control, Management roles, Organisational behaviour, Planning, Scheduling, Project parties, Oman

Title: Factors Influencing Success Rate of Contractors in Competitive Bidding for Construction Works in South-East, Nigeria
Author: Isaac Olaniyi Aje, Timo Olugbenga Oladinrin and Angeline Ngozika Chibuike Nwaole
- Abstract  

The focal point of this study was to assess the perspectives of construction professionals on factors influencing tender prices of construction works and the contribution of the factors to the success rate of contractors. Using literature review and questionnaire survey, 15 factors were identified in respect to contractors' tender price and success rate in Nigeria. The findings of this study based on the results of statistical analyses (mean score and chi-square) reveal that all the construction professionals (architects, builders, engineers and quantity surveyors) are of the opinion that material availability, labour productivity and level of profit are the most significant factors that highly influence tender price of construction works and consequently affect the success rate of contractors in competitive bidding. Project definition and construction plan have least influence on contractors' tender price. Also, it was found that government policy does not have significant effect on contractors' success rate in competitive bidding in Nigeria. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper will be of interest to all parties concerned, including Nigerian construction companies and foreign companies planning to enter the Nigerian construction market. In addition, while the research focused on a particular country, Nigeria, the study can be replicated in other countries particularly developing countries and the results can be compared.

Keywords: Contractors, Bidding, Construction, Tender, Nigeria

Title: Modelling the Effect of Housing Design Unit Contract Packaging on Mass Housing Project Team Communication Performance
Author: Titus Ebenezer Kwofie, Emmanuel Adinyira and Frank Fugar
- Abstract  

Studies exploring success on mass housing projects (MHPs) continue to cite communication ineffectiveness inherent from the unique attributes of mass housing as a major problem in the delivery. Unfortunately, these studies fail to establish the nature and extent to which the observed communication ineffectiveness is attributed to the unique characteristics displayed by MHPs. Here, this study aims at exploring the influence of the housing design unit contract packaging (HDP) features of MHPs on project team communication performance. By adopting a questionnaire survey and the use of structural equation model (SEM), the study used empirical data collected from project team leaders on mass housing project sites in Ghana to assess the communication ineffectiveness inherent in the HDP attributes. The evidence gathered from the empirical study indeed supports the hypothesis that the HDP features of MHPs significantly contribute to communication ineffectiveness related to information flow and information composition among the project team. These findings affirm the uniqueness of MHPs and suggest the need for project teams and stakeholders on mass housing to adopt communication methods, medium, strategies and management approaches that fit the mass housing project environment to engender managerial and communication efficiencies in mass housing delivery.

Keywords: Communication ineffectiveness, Mass housing projects, Housing design unit contract packaging

Title: Studying the Reasons for Delay and Cost Overrun in Construction Projects: The Case of Iran
Author: Hamed Samarghandi, Seyed Mohammad Moosavi Tabatabaei, Pouria Taabayan, Ahmad Mir Hashemi and Keith Willoughby
- Abstract  

Undesirable delays in construction projects impose excessive costs and precipitate exacerbated durations. Investigating Iran, a developing Middle Eastern country, this paper focuses on the reasons for construction project delays. We conducted several interviews with owners, contractors, consultants, industry experts and regulatory bodies to accurately ascertain specific delay factors. Based on the results of our industry surveys, a statistical model was developed to quantitatively determine each delay factor's importance in construction project management. The statistical model categorises the delay factors under four major classes and determines the most significant delay factors in each class: owner defects, contractor defects, consultant defects and law, regulation and other general defects. The most significant delay factors in the owner defects category are lack of attention to inflation and inefficient budgeting schedule. In the contractor defects category, the most significant delay factors are inaccurate budgeting and resource planning, weak cash flow and inaccurate pricing and bidding. As for the consultant defects delay factors such as inaccurate first draft and inaccuracies in technical documents have the most contribution to the defects. On the other hand, outdated standard mandatory items in cost lists, outdated mandatory terms in contracts and weak governmental budgeting are the most important delay factors in the law, regulation and other general defects. Moreover, regression models demonstrate that a significant difference exists between the initial and final project duration and cost. According to the models, the average delay per year is 5.9 months and the overall cost overrun is 15.4%. Our findings can be useful in at least two ways: first, resolving the root causes of particularly important delay factors would significantly streamline project performance and second, the regression models could assist project managers and companies with revising initial timelines and estimated costs. This study does not consider all types of construction projects in Iran: the scope is limited to certain types of private and publicly funded projects as will be described. The data for this study has been gathered through a detailed questionnaire survey.

Keywords: Construction projects, Delay, Statistical analysis, Regression, Developing country, Middle East, Iran

Title: Influences of Cost Factors Affecting Technical Performance of Local Government Projects in Nigeria: A Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Approach
Author: Nuru Gambo, Ilias Said and Radzi Ismail
- Abstract  

The technical performance requirements of projects posed a challenge to the sustainable development of small size local government projects particularly in developing countries. Studies in the past focused mainly on the performance of major foreign construction firms mostly owned and operated by expatriates. Very few researches however, have been conducted to assess the relationship between major cost factors affecting technical performance of small size local government projects. This study is aimed at assessing the relationship between major cost factors that affect technical performance of small size local government projects in Nigeria. Survey instruments were administered to major stakeholders in the construction industry comprising of project clients, contractors and consultants using proportionate stratified random sampling method. A Warp partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) software algorithm was used for the analysis of collected data. The software is one of the powerful software for data analysis and has an advantage of providing p values based on the structure of the research model. The study concluded that cash flow problem, fraudulent practice and nature of construction environment are the major factors affecting technical performance of local government projects in Nigeria and further recommended the use of mediator variables like pay for performance and advance payment policy to minimise such negative effects. Governments in developing countries should devise a good cash flow policy and impose stringent penalties against any party involved in fraudulent activity.

Keywords: Cost, Factors, Technical, Performance, Projects, Nigeria

Title: Cost Shares and Factor-Cost Ratios in Owner-Built Incremental Housing in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Author: Samwel Alananga Sanga and Charles Lucian
- Abstract  

The adoption of incremental owner-built techniques in housing construction relies on the associated lower cost compared to developer-built approaches. The mechanism that lowers cost is however, not obvious. This study is based on survey data that were collected using questionnaires which were distributed to 200 respondents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania with response rate of 22.5%. The analysis results, based on descriptive statistics and regression analysis indicate that an incremental house-builder targeting an additional bedroom incrementally spends 28% lower annual construction cost and each additional square meter built, is associated with 0.4% lower cost. However, such lower cost comes at a 5%–10% longer completion time. These observations suggest that spreading costs over time reduces construction cost through multiple cost-saving channels opened up by time itself and factor intensity. The intensity of incremental housing construction favours increasing expenditure on labour than capital yielding a 5% reduction in annual cost but the greatest cost reduction benefit of up to 26% is realised through increasing expenditure on "capital" with fixed spending on materials during construction.

Keywords: Cost, Factor-cost ratios, Housing, Owner-built housing, Dar Es Salaam

Title: Prioritising Facilities Management Services for Benchmarking in Selected Cities in Nigeria
Author: Yewande Adewunmi, Modupe Omirin and Hikmot Koleoso
- Abstract  

Due to the high cost of benchmarking, it is often difficult to provide required resources for it. Therefore, to benchmark successfully, it is often necessary to identify services that are most important for the efficiency of the organisation and prioritise them. This paper examines the facilities management (FM) services that are most in need of benchmarking in Nigeria. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires that were sent to 120 facilities management organisations in Lagos metropolis, 50 in Abuja and 15 in Port Harcourt. The survey achieved a total response rate of 76% in Lagos, 58% in Abuja and 87% in Port Harcourt respectively. The five services that need benchmarking the most were found to be: utilities, maintenance, security, cleaning and waste disposal, property management and Information Technology in that order. Also, repeated measures analysis of variance results showed that the differences indicated in the respondents' rating of how important it is to benchmark these FM services is statistically significant. Kruskal Wallis test showed that there was difference in the importance of FM services for benchmarking based on professional affiliation of the FM. The study provided information on how to prioritise these services for benchmarking in order to conserve resources of Nigerian organisations.

Keywords: Benchmarking, Facilities management services, Nigeria

Title: Evaluation of Special Purpose Vehicle Organisation Skill Sets Taxonomy for Effective Public-Private Partnership Infrastructure Project Delivery
Author: Christy Gomez and Muhammad Gambo
- Abstract  

The necessary skill sets that public-private partnership (PPP) stakeholders bring together are recognised as being paramount to the success of any PPP project. From preliminary research findings it is clear that there is a strong bias towards business-oriented skills rather than service-oriented skills by the special purpose vehicle (SPV) organisation. This paper examines the skills sets required to ensure the effective delivery and implementation of the private sector–led PPP project with respect to the SPV organisation in order to deliver value for money (VfM). A comprehensive literature review was conducted to establish the various skills needed by the SPV organisation for the successful delivery of PPP infrastructure projects to form the basis of the research questionnaire. Questionnaire survey data obtained from a purposive sample of 48 public and private PPP stakeholders in Peninsular Malaysia was analysed using SPSS v18 to establish the relative importance of the various skill sets. The findings indicate "legal and contracting knowledge" to be the most important and "conceptual skills" as the least important skill for the SPV organisation in PPP project implementation. The findings also indicated that there is a significant difference in the perception of public and private PPP stakeholders with respect to the importance of the "ability to clearly define technical and output specifications and standards for services to be procured", implying less importance given by the private sector with regard to this skill. Drawing on the understanding that skill sets are critical denominators of the organisational structure, this research is expected to influence the development of appropriate guidelines for skills prioritisation in the organisation of SPVs and the effective management of PPP concession projects.

Keywords: Special purpose vehicle, Public-private partnership, SPV skill sets, Infrastructure projects

Title: Finite Element Modelling of Cyclic Behaviour of Cold-Formed Steel Bolted Moment-Resisting Connections
Author: Peter Foster, Gasser Abdelal, James B.P. Lim, Mohammad Hajsadeghi and Daniel McCrum
- Abstract  

This paper investigates the accuracy of new finite element modelling approaches to predict the behaviour of bolted moment-connections between cold-formed steel members, formed by using brackets bolted to the webs of the section, under low cycle fatigue. ABAQUS software is used as a modelling platform. Such joints are used for portal frames and potentially have good seismic resisting capabilities, which is important for construction in developing countries. The modelling implications of a two-dimensional beam element model, a three-dimensional shell element model and a three-dimensional solid element model are reported. Quantitative and qualitative results indicate that the three-dimensional quadratic S8R shell element model most accurately predicts the hysteretic behaviour and energy dissipation capacity of the connection when compared to the test results.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, Bolted connection, Finite element modelling, Cyclic performance, Energy dissipation