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Published by
Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia

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Volume 23, 2018  Issue numbers are not assigned yet.

Title: Constraints Facing Incremental Housing Construction in Dar es Salaam Tanzania
Author: Justine Mselle and Samwel Alananga Sanga
- Abstract  

The owner-built incremental housing strategy has been used for many years across the developing world. This study examines the implication of construction constraints and challenges on annual construction cost expenditure across housing types. Using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis for 43 incrementally built housing units implemented in Dar es Salaam between 1993 and 2013, the study has observed that single and two-storey incremental housing builders face the same set of human related construction challenges and external cost-push factors but different administrative, physical and interest related constraints. Of all the cost-push factors examined, interest rate intervention is the only observed strategy that has far reaching potentials to single-storey low cost incremental builders because such builders are less likely to resort to loans as a mechanism to finance housing. These findings suggest that any other external efforts targeting physical or human related incremental construction constraints are likely to end up either benefiting the high quality builders or every incremental builder regardless of cost or property type or both. The study argues in favour of targeted interest rate support rather than physical or administrative housing assistance if owner-builders are to benefit specifically in any housing policy support.

Title: Local Contractors’ Awareness on Competitiveness Towards Liberalization and Globalization in the Malaysian Construction Industry
Author: Nur Izzati Ab.Rani, Syuhaida Ismail, Zainai Mohamed, Afifuddin Husairi Hussain and Kambiz Ghafourian
- Abstract  

Globalisation gives the opportunity to contractors from a particular country to venture into various countries around the globe as the construction market is unlimitedly open. Due to this globalisation, the government has signed free trade agreements (FTA) as the result of the liberalisation process. Globalisation and liberalisation do not only provide opportunities and benefits to the local construction market, but also give challenges to local contractors in terms of competition with other local and foreign contractors. Yet, a question arises whether the local contractors in particular are aware with the competitive challenges they are facing against the foreign contractors or even amongst the local contractors themselves. This is because there are limited studies conducted which seek to identify the current levels of awareness on competitiveness among local contractors within the Malaysian construction industry. Hence, this paper emerges with the objectives of (1) identifying the current level of awareness of local contractors on competitiveness and (2) investigating the most important attributes of awareness of local contractors in the Malaysian construction industry. Questionnaire surveys were conducted on local Malaysian contractors involving 61 organisations from 112 venturing into overseas market. Data were analysed via Rasch analysis consisting of five method analysis.

Title: Construction Considerations for Low-Cost Earth Brick Shells
Author: Ryan Bradley, Mitchell Gohnert and Ivanka Bulovic
- Abstract  

Earthen shells are typically designed as pure-compression structures; however, some issues associated with construction practice, fixity, and certain actions (i.e., loading), which induce tensile stress, are often overlooked. Thus, cracking is not uncommon in unreinforced earthen shells. Cracking is particularly undesirable in these shells due to issues associated with the durability of earthen building materials. Moisture, in particular, may significantly compromise the strength and longevity of earthen masonry. In this paper, conventional and contemporary techniques utilized for the construction of earthen shells are reviewed. Furthermore, construction concerns with several methodologies are identified based on case study investigations and lessons learnt from several shells designed, built and monitored by the authors. An important finding is that fixity generated during construction with formwork can lead to significant cracking in earthen shells.

Title: Mediating Effects of Enforcement on PPGs' Compliance Barriers and Cost Performance of Construction Projects in Nigerian Federal Universities: Process Macro Approach
Author: Nafiu Zadawa, Abdul Azizi Hussin and Atasya Osmadi
- Abstract  

Mediation Analysis is considered as an important research concept in construction research clusters. In this study, we tested the mediation effects’ of enforcement as a compliance mechanism on influencing projects’ award considered as public procurement guidelines’ (PPGs) compliance barriers that affect the cost performance of construction projects. . Data for this study was collected from the procurement stakeholders and construction project parties of nine randomly selected Nigerian federal universities using survey questionnaires. The data collected was analysed and tested for mediation effects with Process Macro. The results obtained indicated that enforcement as a compliance mechanism has mediated the large negative effects of influencing project award as PPGs’ compliance barriers that affects construction project cost performance. Thus, the study concluded that influencing projects award were identified as one of the major PPGs’ compliance barriers affecting the cost performance of construction projects in Nigeria. In addition, enforcement was tested and verified as an effective mediator that mitigates the effects of the influencing projects award on construction project cost performance. The study recommends the prompt implementation of enforcement actions in the form of penalties, and strict measures against any defaulting stakeholders and construction project parties.

Title: Night Cooled Radiant Cooling Panel for Sustainable Building Cooling Mode in Malaysia
Author: Azhaili Baharun, Muhammad Imran, Siti Ibrahim and Wan Azlan Wan Zainal Abidin
- Abstract  

Night air temperature in Malaysia is generally about 23⁰C and is a potential source of heat sink to dissipate heat gain from a building. A thermal storage tank was used to store a certain quantity of water and was passively cooled during the night using the pitch roof as a heat exchanger to chill the water to as low as 22⁰C. The free cooling of water was then used as a cooling medium to cool the modular radiant cooling panel during the day time when the outdoor temperature exceeds 30⁰C. The experiment shows that the system was able to maintain an indoor temperature of less than 28⁰C when the outdoor temperature peaked to nearly 34⁰C while providing acceptable thermal comfort with certain controlled air movement. The use of the hydronic radiant panel with free night cooled water as its coolant was proven to have significant energy saving potential of up to 85% while at the same time provide an acceptable room thermal comfort which meets the international standard criteria such as American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55.

Title: Causality Links Between the Growth of the Construction Industry and That of the Nigerian Economy
Author: Mu'awiya Abubakar, Abdullahi Muhammad and Kabir Bala
- Abstract  

The construction industry makes significant contribution to the growth and development of every economy, by providing infrastructure for other productive ventures, generating employment to people of different levels of knowledge and skills. In Nigeria, the construction industry contributes to the annual gross domestic product and an average of about one-third of the total fixed capital investment. Despite the huge potentials of the Nigerian construction industry, little attention is given to its significance in driving the Nigerian economy to greater heights. This study explored the empirical evidence of causal relationship between the growth and development of the Nigerian economy and that of the construction sector. Econometric techniques such as unit root test, Granger causality test and Johansen’s co-integration test were conducted to establish the actual relationship between the output of the construction sector (CS) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country. 25 years’ time series data for the CS and the GDP between 1990 to 2015 was obtained from the statistics database of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and used for the analyses. The research revealed that despite the harsh economic realities facing the country in recent, there exist a bi-directional linkage between the CS and the GDP.

Title: An Examination of the Key Drivers of Amendments to the Standard Forms of Contract in the South African Construction Industry
Author: Modupe Mewomo, Clinton Aigbavboa and Portia Lesalane
- Abstract  

Some of the perceived benefits of standard forms of contract are standardisation, uniformity and the availability of well-established terms and conditions which allow predictability and greater certainty in legal relations. Thus, the standard forms are widely adopted in the construction industry to facilitate the contractual arrangements between contracting parties in a construction project. Notwithstanding its importance, literature suggests that it is practically unfeasible to devise a standard form of contract that would cater for all construction issues that might occur in construction projects. Therefore, the existing standard forms are sometimes amended in order to fit the clients’ requirements and also to suit the contractors’ expectations. This paper therefore investigates the key factors that drive amendments to the standard forms of contract in the South African construction industry. The data was obtained through questionnaire survey sent to the construction professionals who are usually involved in the selection of contract forms for the client in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The data was statistically analysed and the mean item score was used for presenting the results. The results indicate “altering risk allocation”, “inserting additional obligation” and “correcting something which is not applicable” as the three prominent factors that highly drive the amendment of standard forms of contract in South Africa.

Title: Examining the Performance Level of Project Management Competencies of Architects in Ghana Using GAP Analysis Approach
Author: Titus Kwofie, Edward Botchway and Samuel Amos-Abanyie
- Abstract  

Evaluation of the performance level of key project management (PM) competencies of the various project teams is perceived as a recourse necessary for identifying potentially crucial and practical training needs of project team participants in PM practice. However, notable studies in this domain have primarily focused on the identification of critical PM competencies of project managers and engineers of the project team neglecting the architect who are equally important participants of construction project teams. This study focused on assessing the performance level of the critical project management competencies of the Architect as a key team participant in project delivery. A quantitative method design was adopted involving a structured questionnaire survey of Ghanaian construction professionals who were selected through snow balling sampling. The data elicited were analysed using mean scores, Kruskal-Wallis test and GAP analysis. The findings revealed that, Architects show worse performance on seven (7) critical competencies. The practical implication of the findings is that, the disposition of Architects PM behaviours can be ascertained as this can lend credence to legitimizing corrective action through any potential continuing professional development (CPD) programme and training in PM for Architects in the Ghanaian Construction Industry (GCI).

Title: Analysis of Claims in Public Works Construction Contracts in India
Author: Amit Moza and Virendra Paul
- Abstract  

Majority of construction works are carried out through contracts and most of public works in India are modeled on General Conditions of Contract (GCC) formulated by Central Public Works Department (CPWD). Such Public-Works Contracts have inherent limitations of being adapted on case to case and thus, are perceived to be rigid and prone to disputes. An attempt has been made to understand and evaluate the relationship between contract conditions and different claims that are usually encountered in construction disputes. An assessment has been done to determine the root cause of various claims with respect to contract conditions with a view of suggesting certain changes in GCC for effective contract management. Twenty Two disputes in arbitration from CPWD have been considered and the claims subject to arbitration were studied and analyzed. Classification and categorization of claims was done and frequency of claims, quantum of amount claimed and amount awarded were determined for each type which was then related with the conditions of contract guiding them. Suggestions have been put forward on the basis of limited study as changes that can be made in GCC of CPWD, for avoiding the claims to arise in the first place.

Title: Specific Roles of Builders in Building Information Modelling Processes
Author: Oluseye Olugboyega
- Abstract  

Building Information Model is developed by integrating all information from project team members at each stage into a single repository that can easily be deposited, retrieved, edited and shared. Collaboration between the designers and builders is necessary to confirm the correctness of the design intent and concept before commencing the construction process. This study examined the specific roles of builders by identifying examining the information required from builders in Building Information Modelling (BIM) processes. A total of one hundred and thirty (132) questionnaires filled by the respondents were used for analysis using the Relative Impotence Index. The findings show that the role of builders in BIM is the coordination of 3D models and the simulation of the construction programme and construction methodology. The study concludes that the specific roles of builders in BIM processes is to detect information clashes and simulate the construction process in a sequential order.

Title: Risk Factors in Construction Projects during Unrest Periods in Yemen
Author: Ali Mohammed Alashwal and Mohammed Al-Sabahi
- Abstract  

Construction projects are inherently exposed to various risk and uncertainties. Numerous studies have identified risk factors in construction projects in developed and developing countries. Yemen has witnessed revolutions and wars during the past six years, which affected the construction sector among other sectors. The purpose of this paper is to determine risk factors during the unrest period in Yemen. A list of 72 risk variables was developed based on the literature review followed by a questionnaire survey to determine relevant variables and factors. The results of this study explored new components of risk variables, namely environmental, resource-related, technical, conflict, design-related, profit-related, liquidity, and revolution and change. In addition, the results indicated critical risks affecting construction projects and main strategies to respond to them. The results of this paper provide an essential step for managing risks, so project managers and other professionals can ensure good project performance. However, further study is required to investigate the effectiveness of risk response strategies proposed in this paper.

Title: Effect of Critical Risk Factors Causing Cost Deviation in Medium Sized Construction Projects
Author: Renuka S.M. and Umarani C.
- Abstract  

Risk is the outcome of an event which may be predicted on the basis of statistical probability. Construction projects have inherent risks associated with it. The main aim of this paper is to identify the critical risk factors and to propose a model to find the probability of cost deviation in medium sized construction projects. A total of 46 risk factors were shortlisted based on pilot study and experts’ opinion. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 223 various construction professionals each representing one project i.e. from 223 different projects. Based on factor analysis, 46 risk factors which influence the cost deviation in construction projects were classified under nine key risk groups viz. Project scope and evaluation risk, Site supervision risk, Documentation and legal framework risk, Knowledge sharing risk, Work environment risk, Financial viability risk, Lean construction risk. Logistic regression analysis was also carried out to develop a model to find the probability of cost deviation in construction projects. It is concluded that the risk groups such as Project scope and evaluation risk, Site supervision risk, Knowledge sharing risk, and Lean construction risk are having higher influence in the cost deviation in medium sized construction projects. Suggestions and recommendations are given to overcome the cost deviation in construction projects.

Title: Gating and Syntactical Analysis of Spatial Configuration of Sectors of Gurgaon (Gurugram), India
Author: Ajay Kaushik
- Abstract  

The neighbourhood development in the form of sectors in the city of Gurgaon is ever changing since the inception of regulatory body Haryana Urban Development Authority. The sectors of the city that developed earlier showcase the different manifestation of urban development. Ever since the involvement of private developers in urban development, gating is an unavoidable part of neighbourhood development. Gated developments enforce full control on their street network. The paper brings out the difference in the changing street pattern through syntactical analysis of streets. The main objective is to understand the configurational differences in the neighbourhood street pattern by using syntactical parameters of street network. For this three different sectors (Sector 4, 56 & 49) showcasing different growth pattern have been compared. The study is divided into five major parts. The first part the paper has introduction to the problem. The second part of the paper, i.e literature review. The third part presents methodology and introduces the case study areas. The fourth part brings out the result and the fifth one draws conclusion from the study. It is revealed from the study that sector 4 is more intelligible and has higher synergy value as compared to sector 49.

Title: Designing a Low-Carbon Building Via LCB Method 3.0
(Case Study: An Educational Building in Tehran)
Author: Sami Saleki and Shooka Khoshbakht
- Abstract  

Air pollution and its damage has caused growth of concerns in human societies in the last decades. Nowadays, environmental issues are being discussed more than ever and sometimes it leads to solutions and methods to improve current situations. One of the methods is introduced in 2009 as Low-Carbon Building (LCB) method. This method considers reduction of emissions in building during its whole lifetime. In this study, an educational building is designed with the purpose of considerable reduction in GHG emissions. This building is investigated in different stages and eventually, the amount of carbon emissions in the building’s lifetime is estimated by LCB Method 3.0 which is built on PAS 2050. After estimation, it is determined that the project building, according to Low-Carbon Building classification, can be ranked in class C (good). This study also discusses effective strategies which lead to low-carbon buildings.

Title: Strategies for Community Participation in Pre-Disaster Phase in the Gaza Strip
Author: Adnan Enshassi, Sobhi Shakalaih and Suhair AlKilani
- Abstract  

The objective of this paper is to identify and investigate the strategies are utilized by local communities in the Gaza Strip- Palestine in pre-disaster stage. Twenty four community participation- pre-disaster strategies were compiled from the literature and refined according to the pilot study. A purposive sampling method of 86 community members in neighborhood committees was employed to collect the data. The results obtained from the factor analysis clustered the community participation strategies into three components, namely: preparing effective coordination and management plans, preparing information and knowledge system, and providing early warning and communication plans. None Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Gaza governorates require a common understanding of what creates effective disaster preparedness system. Risks threatening Gaza Strip cannot be prevented, but their human, socio-economic, and environmental impacts can and should be minimized through appropriate measures, including early warning. The early warning system in Gaza governorates is considered weak and need to be developed. There is a need to disseminate early warning protocols of every type of risks in Gaza Strip for local communities. The findings of this research will be significant concerning the present and future of organizational planning and management by both governmental and NGOs regarding disaster management practice and community participation in pre-disaster phase.

Title: A Study of the Concept of Iranian Traditional Architecture in Bazaars and Shopping Centers
Author: Nasibeh Sadafi and Maliheh Sharifi
- Abstract  

Technological innovations have changed traditional cities and thrown up new industrial spaces in unforeseen locations. Bazaars or business complexes were among the most important parts of city spaces, and always had great impact on people’s lives and their architecture. Due to the expansion of cities, the concept of bazaar has changed, and is replaced by distributed spaces called shopping centers. This study was based on examining the problems and the shortcomings of today's bazaars from the perspective of clients and users, and providing solutions to improve practical conditions. To this end, the descriptive-analytic survey was conducted in Tehran, and 272 questionnaires were distributed and collected randomly among visitors in four shopping malls. To scrutinize the hypothesis, the correlation tests, single variable T-test, and F -test were applied. The results from assessments using SPSS16 software showed that the mere external similarity between an environment and form of an element or meaning cannot represent the properties of desired principles for citizens. Therefore, during the design stage, it is necessary to pay enough attention not only to the concepts of a physical form, but also to the mental picture and psychological aspects that audiences receive from an area.